Chauhan Rajaputras: Origins, Growth, Expansions

Origins

The oldest Chauhan inscription is the Hansot plates dated 756 CE found in Hansot village, Bharuch, Gujarat [1]. It records the gift of a village in Ankleshwar by Chauhan Bhartrvaddha II, a feudal lord of Bharuch in service of Imperial Parihar Emperor Nagabhatt I [2]. However, an inscription is only a mark of ascent to power and Bhartrvaddha II was definitely not a native of Bharuch.

Various Chauhan inscriptions - Sevadi village Pali (1119 CE) [3], Ajmer (circa 1155 CE)[4], Bijolia (1170 CE) [5], Sunda (1262 CE) [6] and Acchleshwar temple (1320 CE) [7] variously call the origins of the clan in suryavansh, Vatsa gotra, or as a lineage different from both suryavansh and chandravansh, but remain consistent in putting a legendary hero Chahamana as the progenitor of the clan.

However, genealogical history of the clan is traced to Vasudev Chahamana who Prabandha Kosa places in V.S. 608 (551 AD) [8]. Vasudev was a petty chief of the Sapadalaksa or Savalakha in Jangladesh, with its capital at Ahicchatrapur (Nagaur) - the earliest recorded abode of Chauhans [9]. The Vatsa gotra probably hints at Vasudev’s connections with the Vatsa republic.

As per Kayam Raso by Jankavi Nyamat Khan,himself a Chauhan, Vasudev had 4 sons: Arimuni, Muni , Manik Rai and Jaypal.
Arimuni migrated to Raath (राठ ) region of North Alwar; Muni stayed back at Jangladesh and Manik Rai migrated to Sambhar [10].

I. Jangladesh’s Chauhans - Chayal, Mohil, Alnot & Kayamkhani

VeerGogaji
panch-peer Zaherveer Gogaji, a Nath Jogi,was a Chayal Chauhan, who is venerated as a protector of peasants from snakes.

  1. Chayal Chauhans

As per Kayamraso, Muni’s descendants Chayal & Mohil became progenitors of Chayal Chauhan and Mohil Chauhan clans.
The Chauhan Gangharan Chayal established Ghanghu (tehsil Churu, Churu) in 902 AD [11] as a feudatory of Sambhariya Chauhans. His descendant Jewaraj Chayal moved to Dadrewa (tehsil Rajgarh, Churu) leaving Ghanghu to his brothers.
The region, comprising parts of Hisar, Fazilka, Churu and Sirsa was called Chayalwara, after this khaap of Chauhans.

Jewaraj’s eldest son was Gogaji Chauhan, a Nathjogi & contemporary of Gorakhnath, who fought & attained martyrdom against Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1024 CE [12]. He was succeeded by his brother Vairasi’s son Udayraja. The Dadrewa Inscription dtd 1213 AD of mahamandelasvara Jaitasiha Chayal places him as 8th generation from Udayraja. The 5th in line among Jaitasiha’s successor was Motaray Chauhan [13]. Out of Motaraya’s 5 sons, two remained Hindus and stayed at Dadrewa while there - Karamchand (Kayamkhan), Jainand (Zainuddin) and Jabar Chand (Zabaruddin) embraced Islam, and took up service under Delhi Sultanate. Their descendants ie Kayamkhanis first ruled Hisar and then Fatehpur and Jhunjhunu. All the Muslim Rajputs under this Kayamkhani Clan’s domain were gradually assimilated to form the Kayamkhani Biradari (read further).
The last Chayal chief of Dadrewa, Man Singh Chauhan was killed after a 7 month resistance by Bikaner State armies in 1509[14]. The Chayal sovereignty was finally ended in 1512 by Rao Lunkaran with annexation of Bhatner [15]. Most Chayal Chauhans migrated to Punjab’s Majha & Malwa regions, where those of Malwa became Sikhs while those of Majha became Muslims. However, the priests of Gogamedi Temple dedicated to Gogaji, remain Muslim Chayals.

  1. Mohil Chauhans

Chauhan Dhandha’s son was Indra whose descendant Mohil started this branch. Mohils conquered Chhapar-Dronapur in district Churu and ruled from Ladnun in Nagaur which they took from Dahaliya Parmars in 1073 AD. Sikar’s Jeenmata temple was established by Rao Hardatt Mohil in 1105 AD and Jeenmata herself belonged to[16] .
The Charlu Inscription(1184 CE) notes the martyrdom of several Mohil heroes led by Mohil Ambaraka , a feudatory of Prithviraj III, in Nagor battle with Solankis [17]. Vairsairai Mohil was a feudatory of Prithviraj III.
Kodamdesar village (tehsil Kolayat, Bikaner) famous for its Bhairoji temple was established by Mohil Manikyarav in memory of his daughter Kodamde.
Their rule was ended by Rathore Bida in 15th century. Mohils of Ladnun, Churu embraced Islam by 16th century and were assimilated into Kayamkhani Biradari, while some Mohils of Sikar remained Hindus. Hindu Mohils are also found in Nahan town, Sirmur, Himachal Pradesh who probably migrated from Bhatner alongwith the Bhatis who established Sirmur State.

  1. Jod Chauhans

Arjan and Sarjan fought with Goga for Dadrewa when Rana Jewaraj (Jewar) died. Goga defeated them. This war took place before 1024 AD since Goga died in 1024 AD fighting with Mohammad Ghazni. Arjan and Sarjan moved to a place named Jodi Churu district. Hence their descendants were called Jod Chauhans. Later many moved south and established in Narhar and Jhunjhunu.

(*) Chauhans of Punjab & Himachal

Centuries of Migration and scattering of Jangladesh’s Chauhan rajputs into Punjab’s Malwa & Majha, is a reasonable speculation. In Bahawalpur, the Chauhan Rajputs have 3 major clans - Khalis, Hamshira & Khichis [18]. Although certain Hindu and Chayal villages still survive near Churu and Sikar, many Chauhan rajputs of Jangladesh, were pushed to Punjab’s Malwa and Majha regions, due to formation of Bikaner State in 15th century . However, most others were absorbed in Kayamkhani caste on coversions.
Jangladesh was source for much Chauhan Rajput demography of Punjab, Sirsa ,Himachal and Garhwal. Sikh hero Alam Singh Nachna from Sialkot,is one example [19]. During the era of Qutbudddin Aibak, Bhup Singh Chauhan migrated to Jaswan State of Jaswal Katochs (under Raja Sahaichand Jaswal). He was martyred in a battle and his son Gopal Chauhan was given Chukhiara, Jalandhar. These people became Saroya Rajputs, after a village in Hoshiarpur by the same name [20]. The medieval forts of Sikh Saroya rajputs in the villages of Chukhiara, Bhungarni, Dihana and Bohan are evident of their heritage [21].


Most Bachas Chauhans live around Taraori in North Haryana, where the Imperial Chauhans had a fort; Source: here

However, the largest population of Chauhan rajputs dwelt in Karnal and Ambala. In Ambala, the Bachas Chauhans, a branch of Sambhariyas , have many villages [22].In Karnal, they owe their origins to Hariraja of Neemrana Sambhariya & his battle with the Pundirs [23]. After defeating Pundirs with the help of Madhadh Pratihars, Hariraja established Jundla in Karnal as his headquarter. All Hindu Chauhan rajputs of the region owe their origin to him, however Jundal’s Chauhan Rajputs became Muslims. The Muslim Chauhan Rajputs of Jundla migrated to Pakistan upon Partition. However, Rana Hariraya is worshiped as Rana Pir and has his temple in Jundla .
In Sonipat , Jakhauli, Joshi Chauhan & Jhundpur are some Chauhan rajput villages.
In Hissar, Bara-Thals have 12 villages adjoining Bikaner [24].

4. Alanot Chauhans

The Arnots or Allnots ruled at Lalsot and Dausa, before Dullarai Kachwaha in 11th century ; their last chief at Lalsot was Ralhansi Chauhan [25]. Even today, many Allnots reside in Bighota (Alwar) Mandawar, Dausa. They were once rulers of Bighota & Dhundhoti . Garhi-Harsaru (in Gurgaon) was established by them [26].
Apart from Mohils of Nahan, Sirmour alongwith Bhatis of Bhatner , there are Arnot Chauhans in Mandi, Bilaspur and Kangra.

II. Sambhariya Chauhans or Imperial Chauhans of Ajmer


Anasagar commissioned by Arnoraja Source: timesofindia

The third son of Vasudev, Manik Rai conquered Sambhar and became famous as Samantaraja, the progenitor of Sambhariya / Shakambhari Chauhans.His reign ended in 668 CE (V.S. 725) [27] . His descendants Durlabharaja and Guvaka I were famed feudatories of Imperial Parihar Naghbhatt II. Durlabharaja is said to have bathed his sword in Ganges and ocean and enjoyed the Gauda land [28].

Around 917 AD, Vakpatiraja I came to power, son of Guvaka II [29] who established a Shaiv temple at Pushkar and started breaking off from the Imperial Parihars. His elder son Simharaja succeeded him as leader of Sambhar Chauhans, while second son Rao Lakha established a separate Major branch called Nadol Chauhans by 950 CE, which became another major branch parrallel to Sambhariyas. The third son was a donor at Harshnath temple [30].

In 973 AD, Vigrahraja II finally broke away from the service of Imperial Parihars and started building a Chauhan Empire. Prithvirajvijjaya mentions him as a good cavalry leaders and states tChauhan horses to have muddied the waters of Narmada, on the banks of which Vigrahraja II (alias Bisaldeo II) is said to have established a temple dedicated to kuldevi Ashapura [31].

NOTE : Bisaldeo II was succeeded by his younger brother Durlabharaja II and finally by Govindraja III, who is variously understood as either the third brother or the son of Durlabhraja II. All subsequent rulers of Imperial Chauhans were descendants of Govindraja III [32]. However, his sons Sarangdeo & Anuraja became progenitors of Khichis and Hadas respectively.

Govindraja III’s descendant Ajayaraja II established Ajmer around 1113 CE [33], whose son & later emperor Arnoraja commissioned the Arna Sagar to purify the place of Turkic blood [34].

1. Vigraharaja IV (Bisaldeo IV) & his Descendants - Raizada Chauhans of Fatehpur


A coin of Vigrahraja IV, Rama standing left, holding bow; “sri ra ma” in Devanagari above bird and flower symbols Source: here

However, the greatest ruler of this Imperial Chauhan power was Vigraharaja IV (1150-1164 CE), second son of Arnoraj, whose sway covered Rajasthan, Haryana, Topra near Shivalik Hills and Malwa[35]. Vigraharaja commissioned several buildings in his capital Ajayameru (modern Ajmer), most of which were destroyed or converted to Muslim structures after the Muslim conquest of Ajmer. These include a Sanskrit centre of learning that was later converted into the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque. Harakeli Nataka , a Sanskrit-language drama written by him, is inscribed on inscriptions discovered at the mosque site.
Bisalpur town in Tonk and the nearby Bisalpur Dam take their name from Bisaldeo IV.

Viagrahraja IV had two sons: The eldest Amar Gangeya, ruled briefly only to be replaced in quick succession by Prithviraj II (s/o Jugga, eldest brother of Vigrahraja IV) and uncle Someshwar (younger brother of Vigrahraja IV & father of Prithviraj III). Amar Gangeya died childless, while his other son Nagarjuna migrated to Fatehpur in UP, where he took the name Raiman. His descendants are Raizada Chauhans[36].

2. Descendants of Prithviraj III (Ranthambore dynasty) - Rajkunwar Chauhans of Awadh & Purabia Chauhans of Mewar


Prithviraj III’s territory vis-a-vis Muizuddin Ghuri’s Empire

After the defeat of Hariraja Chauhan, younger brother of Prithviraj III, the Sambhar dynasty at Ajmer ended but the lineage and dynasty continued with Prithviraj III’s only surviving son Govindraja at Ranthambore.

Balhana, the son of Govindaraja, is recorded as a vassal of the Delhi Sultan [Iltumish]in 1215 CE, but declared independence in the later years [37]. Balhana’s elder son Prahlada succeeded him, and died in a lion-hunt. Prahlada’s son Viranarayana was invited to Delhi by Iltumish, but was poisoned to death there.Iltumish captured the fort in 1226 CE. Balhana’s younger son Vagabhata then ascended the throne. He recaptured Ranthambore during the reign of the Delhi ruler Razia (r. 1236-1240) and successfully defended the fort against the Delhi Sultanate’s invasions in 1248 and 1253 CE [38]. The Chauhans of Ranthambore, being in direct line of Sambhar rulers, continued to rule for the next few decades until Hammir Chauhan in 1301. Prithviraj III’s line through Hammir Chauhan survived through Hammir’s only surviving son Ramdeo Chauhan. Ramdeo had two sons: **Takshakdeo ** and Bhojraj.

prithviraj_chauhan
Prithviraj III’s statue in front of Taragarh Fort, Ajmer

Takshak Chauhan migrated to Bahauddinpur village (tehsil Kadipur,Sultanpur) in Awadh and established Bhaddaiyan Raj Taluq in Sultanpur district. Since they were ruling descendants from Prithviraj III through the eldest son of Hammirdev Chauhan, this branch at Bhaddaiyan Raj in Sultanpur became Rajkunwar Chauhans [39]. .The Rajkunwars were the only ruling clans of Sultanpur to unite all the other clans of the area under one flag and form a grand State around 16th century under Bariarshah Rajkunwar of Bhaddaiyan Raj but the state and power of Rajkunwars was dissolved after the great uprising of 1857 as they supported the natives.The victorious British forces demoted the state to a zamindari [40].

On destruction of Ranthambore,most others joined Mainpuri-Chandwar Chauhans - one line under Chandrabhan Chauhan helped Rana Sanga at Khanwa in 1527 and received Bedla in Mewar. These Chauhan Umraos of Bedla, Kotharia , Pasolia and Sola. They became Purabia chauhans [41]

3. Descendants of Kaka Kanha - Makrana, Neemrana,& Pawaiya

Arnoraja had 4 sons - the mad Jaggadeva, Vigrahraja IV (the dynasty’s gem), Someshwara (father of Prithviraj) and Kanhaddeo alias Kaka Kanha (a famed general).
Alwar’s Sambal and Moradabad were part of his Jagir.

(a) His eldest son Bhimadeva received Isagarh & Maithin(Mandawar). Bhimadeva’s eldest son Lakhan inherited Mandawar, Mandawar’s Muslim chauhans trace ancestory from a son - Haladeva. Bhimadeva’s younger son Gopal established the Makrana Sambhariya branch [42].

(b) Bhimadeva’s youngest son Padamsinha migrated to Pawaya (tehsil Bhitarwar, Gwalior) , his descebdants became Pawaiya Chauhans of Gwalior[43].

(c ) While Kanhaddeo’s son Ragha settled Neemrana - Neemrana Sambharia branch, his grandson Gopal s/o Bhimadev Kanhaddeo settled in Makrana , giving Makrana Sambharia branch [44]. Har-raja Neemrana Chauhan & his few brothers, later migrated and settled at Karnal after few battles with Pundir.

4. Descendants of Bisaldeo II /Vigrahraja II (971-998), - Khichis & Hadas


The Ranthambore Fort constructed by Sambhar Chauhans was defended by Prithviraj III’s direct descendant Hammir Chauhan and later by the Hada Chauhans

The founder of Sambhariya Chauhan sovereignty Vigrahraja II alias Bisaldeo II had two sons - elder Sarangdeo and the younger Anuraja [45]. Progenies of Sarangdev Bisaldeo received Jayal(in Nagaur), this group became the Khichi Chauhans His descendant Gundalrao Khichi of Jayal was a feudal under Prithviraj Chauhan III of Sambhar [46]. A branch of Khichi Chauhans settled in Gagraun in the early 14th century, from where most later migrated to Pawagarh and Champaner in Gujarat, and Khilchipur and Raghogarh in MP, at different times [47]. Acchaldas Khichi and Hindu saint Bhakt Peepaji belonged to this section.
Another branch of Jayal’s Khichis also probably migrated to Sindh-Sagar Doab, Punjab where it converted [48].

The second son of Vigrahraja II was Anuraja whose son Ishtpal or a descendant Har-raja is taken as projenitor of Hada Chauhans. Asi or Hansi fort was conquered by Ishtpal as a feudatory, but was lost during the reign of a descendant Hammir Hada who fought as feudal under Prithviraja [49]. As per Menal Inscription (1390 AD), which gives a genealogy of Hadas of Bumaoda, Rao Kalan Hada, a descendant of Ishtpala established himself in Pathar region of southeast Rajasthan and Bumaoda village as the capital [50]. His grandson Rao Devaji Hada, established Bundi in 1342. and gave Pathar its new name - Hadoti (abode of Hadots or Hadas ie descendants of Hararaja) [51].

III. Nadol Chauhans & their Descendants

While the oldest Chauhan clans of Jangaldesh scattered across Jangaldesh, Shekhawati, to South Punjab, Himachal and Haryana; the major Sambhariya branch predominantly migrated eastwards into Gangetic plains, Malwa and Haryana, it is the Nadol branch established by Rao Laxman Chauhan (950-982 CE) s/o Vakpatiraja I , that became the source of much of Rajasthan and Gujarat’s Chauhan lineages [52].

  1. In the line of Rao Lakha, there was a brief ruler Rao Asraj Nadol, (1110-1115 CE). Prof Dasrath Sharma opines that Asraj was instead replaced by his nephew and rightful heir Rao Ratnapal in 1119 CE. Asraj Nadol had many sons including one Nardev who migrated to Khandela and won territories by defeating Dahaliya Parmars. He founded Nirban subclan of Chauhans.

  2. In Rao Lakha’s line was another chief, Rao Alhan (1152-1163 CE), who had two sons Kelhana and Kirtipal.
    Rao Kelhana (1163-1193 CE) ruled Nadol and Rao Kirtipal (1160- 1182 CE) conquered Jalore from the Parmar rulers, establishing the Jalore Chauhans or Sonigra Chauhan clan [53]. Sonigra Kirtipal Chauhan’s eldest son was Samarsimha Sonigra who succeeded him. Samarsimha had two sons: Manavsimha and Udaysimha. Sonigra Udaysimha continued to rule at Jalore, and his descendants included Sonigra Kanhaddeo, the last ruler of Jalore Chauhans.

  3. Though not a ruler himself, Sonigra Manavsimha’s sons included Bodsingh and Balsingh, founders of Bodana chauhans and Balot Chauhans . Another son of Sonigra Manavsimha was Deoraj Pratapmal who became the founder of Deora Chauhans [54] & his grandson Rao Lumba founded the Deora kingdom of Abu and Chandravati by defeating the Abu-Chandravati Parmars.


Sirohi Fort, Source:Government of Rajasthan website

  1. Nadal’s Rao Laxman Chauhan was also the progenitor of other Chauhan lineages. His grandson Balsingh (not to be confused with Sonigra Balsingh) was the progenitor of Balecha Chauhans. Bali Fort in Pali was established by Balsingh’s father Ajitsingh.

  2. The Vagadiya Chauhans were also many of the de-established Nadol Chauhans. The Vagadiyas alongwith Sonigras & Khichis, are source of much of Gujarat’s Chauhan Rajput demography.

IV. Chandwar-Rayabaddiya Dynasty - Mainpuris of Etah & Bachhgoti Chauhans of Awadh

Just as Rathore conquest of Jangladesh years later, dislocated and displaced most Jangladesh Chauhans into South Punjab, Himachal and North Haryana , the destruction of Ajmer-Sambhar power by early Turks forced the Sambhariyas into Chandwar and Rayabaddiya, which continued to remain a poweruntil 1449 [55]. We get a genealogy of their chiefs upto 1256 CE from Anuvrataratnapradipa of Sridhara, as per which the dynasty was established circa 1220 CE [56].The Chandwar-Mainpuri Chauhans maintained their rebellious resistance for two hundred fifty years, after which the headquarter shifted to Mainpuri.
The Mainpuri Chauhans were once again involved in the agrarian revolts of 1857 under Raja Tej Singh [57]. Mainpuri was source of most of UP’s scattered Chauhan population.

In the East, Sultanpur district in Awadh became the abode of two Chauhan lineages. Bariyar Singh from Mainpuri-Chandwar settled in this tract, making village Jamnawana village in Sultanpur his headquarter and founded Bachhgoti Chauhan clan in 1248 [58][59]. This was origin of both Bachgoti Rajputs and Bachgoti Khanzadas.

Apart from this, Baragaiyan Chauhans of Ghazipur, are also of Mainpuri origin (Ghazipur Gazetteer, p. 156).

V. Chambal’s Bhadauriyas & Bundelkhand’s Dhandheras


Ater Fort of Bhadauriyas, Bhind, Source: here

An inscription of Chandamahsena Chauhan of another Sambhariya splinter called Dholpur Chauhan dynasty is recorded as early as 842 CE [60]. as a feudatory of Imperial Parihars. Sometime later Bhado Rai Chauhan (circa 9th century), established of Bhadawar & founder of Bhadauriya Chauhans of Chambal was from Dholpur Chauhan line. Their principle seat was Bhind in Gwalior [61].

Dhandhera Chauhans of Bundelkhand, trace ancestory from Chauhan Dhandhu, a general in Prithviraj’s army [62], in whose line was Mukutmani Chauhan who established the Gugor Fort of Shahabad tehsil in Baran in 1521 [63] . Dhandhera Chauhans are found in Bundelkhand where they were allies of Ponwars & Bundelas.

Bhensolias of Katihar (Bihar), claim origin from this Chambal section.

VI. Garhwali Chauhans


BhairoGarhi of Aswals, Source [64]

  1. Chauhans controlled UpuGarh, Udaipur (teh Udaipur, Chamoli). These Chauhans claimed orgin from Kuchore, Churu in distant past.

  2. The Aswal Chauhans trace their ancestory to Ranthambore from some Aswaraj Chauhan.They were Thokdars (subordinate chiefs) of Shila Patti in Gangasalan, Pauri Garhwal. There is a saying “aadho Garhwal aadho Aswal” for when the Gorkhas invaded Garhwal they couldnt conquer the BhairoGarhi (Kirtikhal, Pauri Garhwal)of Aswal Chauhans [64:1].

  3. The Ramola Chauhans migrated from Chandwar and settled in Ramoli village (tehsli Chinyalisaur, Uttar Kashi). They controlled MolyaGarh in Ramoli and RaikaGarh in Raika (teh Pratapgarh, Tehri Garhwal).

  4. The Dhammada Bishts and Parasra Rawat’s of South Garhwal, who initially ruled in Haridwar’s Jwalapur Hat before being pushed into hills by Pundirs of Haridwar. The former take their name from Dharmdev Chauhan while the latter are their brothers who take their name from Parasri village.

  5. While the Sinkvan Negi Chauhans are those who migrated as companians of the Parmar Kanakpal.

  6. Lohvan Negis of LohabaGarhi (Pauri Garhwal) [65].

VII. Chauhans of Orissa -

Ramai Deva Chauhan,a descendant from Sambhar line was able to establish a Chauhan dynasty at the erstwhile Patna state, Bolangir district in 1350 CE [66], bringing much stability to the region.


References:-



  1. Sharma, Dasharatha, Early Chauhan Dynasties, p. 15. ↩︎

  2. ibid. p. 16 ↩︎

  3. Singh, R. B. (1964); History of the Chāhamānas; pp. 10-11 ↩︎

  4. ibid. p. 12 ↩︎

  5. ibid. p. 89 ↩︎

  6. Epigraphia Indica Vol.IX By Kielhorn, pp.70-83 ↩︎

  7. Singh, R. B. (1964); History of the Chāhamānas; p. 11 ↩︎

  8. Sharma, Dasharatha, Early Chauhan Dynasties, p. 8 ↩︎

  9. ibid. p. 11-13 ↩︎

  10. Kayamkhan Raso ↩︎

  11. Ratanlal Mishra:New History of Shekhawati, Mandawa, 1997,p. 41-42, ब्रूतेसम्प्रति चाहमानतिलको शाकंभरी भूपति: । श्रीमद्विग्रहरज एव विजयी संतानजान्नात्मजान ॥ अस्मामि: करदं व्यवधायि हिमवद्विन्ध्यान्तरांला भुव:। शेष स्वीकरणायमास्तु भवतामुद्द्योग शून्यो मन: ॥ ↩︎

  12. Dasratha Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties, p. 366 ↩︎

  13. ibid. p. 365 ↩︎

  14. Karni Singh, The Relation of the House of Bikaner with the Central Powers, 1465-1949 ↩︎

  15. https://m.tribuneindia.com/2001/20010113/windows/heritage.htm ↩︎

  16. Mahabūba Alīkhāṃ Elamāṇa ; Kayamkhaniyo ka Shodhpurn Itihaas; p. 9 ↩︎

  17. Sharma, Early Chauhan dynasties, p. 85 ; Kharataragachhapatavali ↩︎

  18. H A Rose, A Glossary of Tribes & Castes of Punjab & Northwest, p. 156 ↩︎

  19. https://www.sikhiwiki.org/index.php/Alam_Singh_Nachna ↩︎

  20. Karnal Gazetteer, p. 40 ↩︎

  21. https://www.sikhiwiki.org/index.php/Rajput_-Sikh_Relation(During_Guru%27s_Period) ↩︎

  22. H A Rose; ibid, p. 155 ↩︎

  23. Rose; ibid, p. 156 ↩︎

  24. Rose, ibid, p. 156 ↩︎

  25. Jadunath Sarkar, A History of Jaipur State; p. 22-23 ↩︎

  26. Elliot, H.M.; Beames, J. (1896); Memoirs of History, Folklore, & Distribution of the races of Northwestern Provinces of India, p. 82 ↩︎

  27. Dasratha Sarma; Early Chauhan Dynasties, p. 27 ↩︎

  28. ibid , pp. 28-29 ↩︎

  29. R. B. Singh 1964; p. 98. ↩︎

  30. Dasharatha Sharma 1959 p. 28. ↩︎

  31. ibid. p. 34-37 ↩︎

  32. ibid, p. 38-39 ↩︎

  33. R. B. Singh 1964 p. 87 ↩︎

  34. ibid, p. 138. ↩︎

  35. ibid, p. 148 ↩︎

  36. Devi Singh Mandawa, p. ↩︎

  37. Sen, Shailendra Nath (1999), Ancient Indian History and Civilization, p. 336 ↩︎

  38. ibid, p. 336 ↩︎

  39. http://www.indianrajputs.com/view/bhaddaiyan ↩︎

  40. http://www.sultanpurnpp.in/Dynamic/WebControlPanel/English/Frm_Overview.aspx ↩︎

  41. Sharma, ibid, p. 26 ↩︎

  42. Devi Singh Mandhava, Prithviraja, 106 ↩︎

  43. ibid, p. 106-107 ↩︎

  44. ibid, p. 107 ↩︎

  45. https://sites.google.com/site/theprincelystates/c/chauhan ↩︎

  46. Nainsi ri Khyat, Vol. 1, p. 240 ↩︎

  47. http://www.indianrajputs.com/view/khilchipur ↩︎

  48. A H Nizami, Survey of Khichi Chauhan History, p. 3 ↩︎

  49. Annals & Antiquities, Vol III, p. 1802-4 ↩︎

  50. ibid, p. 1804 ↩︎

  51. John Middleton, World Monarchies and Dynasties, p. 129 ↩︎

  52. Kirtipala’s Nadol Plates dtd 1161 CE (EI ,IX, p. 68); Sharma, ibid, p. 134 ↩︎

  53. Sharma,ibid, p. 156-162 ↩︎

  54. Sharma, ibid, p 196, p. 374 ↩︎

  55. ibid, p. 36 ↩︎

  56. Jain-grantha-prasasti-sangraha,vol. II, p. 30-31 ↩︎

  57. Mainpuri Gazetteer, p. 41 ↩︎

  58. Sultanpur Gazetteer, p. 27 ↩︎

  59. https://www.patrika.com/sultanpur-news/history-of-sultanpur-uttar-pradesh-india-in-hindi-3636281/ ↩︎

  60. Sharma, ibid, p. 19 ↩︎

  61. Sanjay Garg, Studies in Indo-Muslim History by S H Hodivala, p. 11 ↩︎

  62. Drake-Brockman: 1909; p. 92 ↩︎

  63. http://www.tourism.rajasthan.gov.in/baran.html ↩︎

  64. http://uttaranchalsanskritiitihas.blogspot.com/2014/10/blog-post_6.html?m=1 ↩︎ ↩︎

  65. Ajay S Rawat, History of Garhwal State, p. 33 ↩︎

  66. https://balangir.nic.in/history/ ↩︎

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