Gahlot Rajaputras : Origins and the making of Mewar, West Up and Saurashtra

Today the Gahlot Rajputs have gradually adopted the demonym Sisodia after Rana Hamir Gahlot of Sesoda village reconquered & re-established control at Chittaur. The real Patronymic Clan-name remains Gohil or Gahlot, a patronymic term derived from their legendary ancestor Guhaji. On the other hand, Sisodia is the youngest subclan/khaap of Guhilots. In Sanskrit inscriptions, it is Guhaputras or Guhillas (sons of Guha Ji).

Chittorgarh Fort

ORIGINS

Historian Nandini Kapur Sinha, Prof at IGNOU writes that a vast corpus of Charanic literature from Mewar imply that while Bhils treated Guhilots as their leaders since antiquity , while the Bhils were addressed as Mairote (born of mountains) [1]. There is nothing known about Guha - the progenitor of the clan except the retrospective Bhaat & Charanic oral histories, though Majumdar places him in 5th century CE while Somani in first half of 6th century CE [2]. Though there were 2000 silver coins found in Agra with โ€œSri Guhillaโ€ inscribed, which was documented by Sir ACL Carlleyle (assistant to Alexander Cunningham) who opined that โ€œGuhillaโ€ may have been an independent chief, whether it was minted by Guhaji himself or any of his early descendants is not confirmed[3]. The latter being more logical as the earliest mining activity in the region is traced to Guhilla Chief Sila ie Siladitya.[4]

Phase I: (600 AD - 800 AD)

Map 1:


Local Guhilot Chiefdoms of Mewar [5]

Thus there was a legendary ancestor Guhaji in antique times to which the three Gahlots of Mewar (Circles) (๐—ฎ) ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ก๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฑ๐—ฎ-๐—”๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ฑ (in northern Udaipur), (๐—ฏ) ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜๐˜€ of ๐—ž๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ธ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ต๐—ฎ (Kalyanpur tehsil in south Udaipur) and (๐—ฐ) ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐——๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ฎ (Dhor village Jahazpur tehsil in Bhilwara) surrounding the semi-feudal power of ๐— ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ถ ๐—ฅ๐—ฎ๐—ท๐—ฝ๐˜‚๐˜๐˜€ (๐— ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐˜†๐—ฎ ๐—ธ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜†๐—ฎ๐˜€) ๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐—–๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜๐˜๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—™๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ [ In Rectangle] , with Bhomat part of Udaipur Hills settled by the Bhils [6]. Their limited territorial control is obvious from their proximity to the Chittorgarh Moris and their simple claims to social-status; yet there was Mori acknowledgement of Mewar as domain of Guhilas.[7]

While each of these 4 settlements were mutually sovereign, a symbiotic relationship between the monarchical Moris and the republican Guhilot chiefdoms defined the sovereignty of Mewar [8].

It must be noted that the oldest parts of Chittaur fort which stands today were orginally built by ๐—–๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ฑ ๐— ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ถ, ๐—ฎ ๐— ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐˜†๐—ฎ ๐—ฅ๐—ฎ๐—ท๐—ฝ๐˜‚๐˜ in early 600s, which is why the magnificient fort as it stands today , was previously called ๐—–๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ผ๐—ผ๐˜ [9]. The last ๐— ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ถ/๐— ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐˜†๐—ฎ presence at Chittaur/Chitrakoot is recorded as per ๐—–๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜๐˜๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—œ๐—ป๐˜€๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฑ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฑ ๐Ÿณ๐Ÿญ๐Ÿฏ ๐—”๐——.belonging to Raja Man Mori [10]. After which there is little trace of Mori Rajputs who mostly vanished from this belt but are still found in Daman & Diu, Saurashtra, Nimar (Madhya Pradesh).

As per Kadmal Plates dtd 1083 AD, Nagaditya Guhilot (626-646 CE) was a great-grandson of Guhadutta [11]. Nagaditya Guhilot had established Nagda village (Girwa tehsil in Udaipur) and founded the Nagda-Ahar branch (Ahada Guhilots) that ruled over a stretch of 22 kms from Nagda to Ahar [12]. The ๐—ฆ๐—ฎ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ ๐—œ๐—ป๐˜€๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฑ๐˜๐—ฑ ๐Ÿฒ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฒ ๐—”๐—— of Nagadityaโ€™s son & successor ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฆ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ฎ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐˜๐˜†๐—ฎ records the opening of a mine at a place termed Aranyakupagiri - which could either be in the Copper-belt of Ahad or the Zinc-Lead-Copper belt at Zawar. Sinha opines it to have evolved into an early workshop-cum-manufacturing centre [13]. The 16th century Buddhist writer Taranatha mentions a reputed artist named Shringadhara, who was patronized by the king Shila of Maru country. Somani identifies this king as the Guhila Shiladitya [14]. Guhilots witnessed a very gradual movement from a rural resource base to an urban industrial base.

Another son of Nagaditya was Guhilot Halsar, progenitor of clan of Hool Guhilots, who have still somewhat maintained their identity in Ajmerโ€™s Kharwa where they use Ranawat, in villages of Nagaur and in Tokra village Bhilwara. As per oral folks, they are said to have even fought alongside Kalbhoj ie Bappa Rawal. [15]

The legendary โ€œBappa Rawalโ€ i.e Kalbhoja (734-753AD) issued the โ€œSri Voppaโ€ coins. He fought an Arab Army in 712 AD under the leadership of Imperial Pratihars. He is the progenitor of most Gahlot khaaps including Ahada Gahlots (of Dungarpur & Banswara) , Asayach Guhilots and Asil Gahlots Saurashtra.
Gahlot_301
Coin of Kalbhoja Bappa Rawal[16]

๐—ฃ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐—œ๐—œ: ๐—œ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ด๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐— ๐—ฒ๐˜„๐—ฎ๐—ฟ (800 AD - 1000 AD)

Though the Gahlots of Kiskindha/Kalyanpur and Gahlots of Dhavagarta/Dhor had a fertle agrarian economy , it was the Nagda-Aahd tract that established a more successful clan-based semi-feudal polity with an inscription talking of a powerful armsmen like ๐—ฉ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—บ๐—ต๐—ฎ ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜, a samanta of Gahlot Chief of Nagda- Ahad [17].

By this period, the Gahlot population of all the three chiefdoms increased causing settlements around the periphery of the three nuclei centers causing infringement into eachothers territories and a loss of autonomy of the less powerful Chiefs of Dhavagarta and Kiskindha, which eventually resulted in merging of the three territories under the ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—–๐—ต๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐—ณ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐๐š๐ ๐๐š-๐€๐ก๐š๐. Khuman II (828 - 853 CE) [18].

This is evident since as per ๐๐ซ๐š๐ญ๐š๐ฉ๐ ๐š๐ซ๐ก ๐ˆ๐ง๐ฌ๐œ๐ซ๐ข๐ฉ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐๐ญ๐ ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ only the Nagda-Ahad Gahlots and a Chauhan group at Pratapgarh were the only ones from Mewar counted as subordinates of the Imperial Pratihar Rajputs who held sway over Northern India and Rajasthan [19]. This confirms that the independent identity of the Gahlots of Kiskindha had been merged while their was a northward movement of Dhavagarta Gahlots.

While the territories of Kiskindha Gahlots was completely merged, a good number of Dhavagarta Gahlots continued to invade and populate the region around Tonk in the North for generations , which is logical Jahazpur tehsil ,where Dhor village (ancient Dhavagarta) lies , is merely 82 kms from Tonk. This fact is further emboldened since the Gahlots of Tonk-Chatsu (near Jaipur) tract counted one Dhanika as an ancestor , who coincidentally is the most well-mentioned cheif of Dhavagarta branch.[20]

There is a folk belief that the great Bappa Rawal or Kalbhoj had conquered Chittaur from Moris, but there is little evidence at hand to back the folklore. The first Gahlot inscription at Chittaur/Chitrakoot belongs to Jaitrasimha dated early 13thcentury. In fact between Man Mori inscription dated 713 AD and the Jaitrasimha Guhila Inscription dated early 13th century, there are many inscriptions belonging to Imperial Rajput dynasties โ€“ Imperial Pratihars of Kannauj, Imperial Parmars of Ujjain , Imperial Chauhans of Sambhar/Ajmer and Imperial Solankis of Gujarat.[21]

The military might of Guhilot Jaitrasimha (1214-1252 CE) was not just evident with his act of transforming Guhila power in Mewar from sub-territorial to a territorial one with conquest of Chittaur fort, after the decline of Imperial Solankis , but his Acchaleshwara Inscription also attests to having repelled Turushka invasion of the region.[22]

๐—ฃ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐—œ๐—œ๐—œ: ๐— ๐—ถ๐—ด๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜๐˜€ (๐Ÿญ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฌ ๐—”๐—— - ๐Ÿญ๐Ÿฎ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฌ ๐—”๐——)

๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ฝ ๐Ÿฎ:


Guhilot Chiefdoms , 10th-13th century [23]

As populations grew , there were Gahlot migrations into many territories into Marwar , Jaipur and Saurashtra , and further into Western Uttar Pradesh.

I. GUHILOTS of MARWAR

(1) Nainsi ri Khyati notes that Hool Guhilots were descendants of Halsar s/o Nagaditya Guhilot I [15:1] ; their earliest inscriptions at Nadol by Guhilot Rajadeva are from 1137-38 CE (Jadvaji Jain Temple inscription & Adinath Temple Inscription) and record grants of grains, shares from oil-mills, incense, flowers etc [24]. They started their political career in the region as feudals of Nadol Chauhans and had established Sojat city in Pali district circa 12th century. Hariraja Hool of Sojat was a feudatory of Prithviraj Chauhan III [25](Mandawa, p.140). They continued to rule Sojat until they were replaced by their bhanej Akheyraj Rirdhmalot Rathore - ancestor to Jaitawats and Kumpawats. Rajsingh Hool was the last Guhilot ruler of Sojat [26]. Today they are found in Kharwa(Ajmer) where they use Ranawat & Govindgarh (Jaipur). Also found in Bhilwaraโ€™s Tokra vilage. Most of their villages are in Ajmer and Merta, like Shyampura (Merta).
Thakur Bahadur Singh of Bidasar (Bikaner) mentions Hool Guhilots on page 4 here as having fought under Man Mori against Arabs in 8th century.

The eyewitness account of third battle of Panipat (1761),Kashi Chandra Pundit , a deccani brahmin in the service of Nawab Sujauddaula of Awadh, mentioned 3 groups of Rajputs that participated in the events on the Maratha side & defended Delhi. These were : Rathores, Kachwahas, & Hool cavalry men. (Ref: HW Rawlinson, Battle of Panipat; p. 20 here).

(2) Memorial Stone inscriptions at a Jain temple in Ustra (Bhopalgarh tehsil Jodhpur) dated 1179-80 & 1190-7 discuss deaths of Guhilot Tihunpala & Guhilot Motisvara and their wives Bodana Palhanadevi and Mohil Raji - both Chauhan women [27]. Both the Guhilot chiefs were Mangalias, who are descendants of Guhilot Mangalraj, a son of Rawal Khumman II (828-853 CE) [28]. Manglia Guhilots are found predominantly in Nagaur and Jangladesh today. Rajasthanโ€™s Panch-Pir Mehaji Manglia was a Manglia Guhilot. The mother of Rao Chundaji, the founder of Rathore power at Mandore/Jodhpur,was a Gahlot of Mangliya khaap [29]. Khinvsi Mangaliya had established Khinvsar in Nagaur and it remained theirs till the time of Rao Ranmal Rathore [30] They are found in Lunawas Khara (Luni), Guda Mangliyan (Pali) ,Gwalnada (Pachpadra) - Lunawat Mangliyas, Gagwana(nagaur), Bhawla (Nagaur) , Nimbo ka Talaab (Osian), Bapini (Osian), Dungarli (Pali) , Isru (Khinvsar), *Sawta, Dharaad in Ratlam(MP) and Karnoli in Fatehbad(Haryana). Gwalnada in Pachpadra , Barsalu Khurd, Jogiyasani, Kharawas in Jodhpur were Thikanas.

IMG-20200901-WA0025

(3) The Bagodia Tirthamba Inscription ( dtd 1054) ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ท๐—ฝ๐˜‚๐˜๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ Bagodia (Lohawat tehsil Jodhpur) , near Jodhpur mentions a memorial inscription referring to the death of one Dhalavana, son of Alaja Vichari , a Gohil [31]
Mangalias and another Guhilot khaap Ashayachs had taken up much territories of Mandore Pratihars. thereby weakening their rule. The Asayach Guhilot ruled over 84 villages and Mangaliyas over 55 villages in 13th century. When Rao Chunda Rathore conquered Mandore, the Mangaliyas and Asayachs became his feudatories[32]. The village of Asayachs, who are descendants of Asaji alias Asaraja s/o Bappa Rawal Kaalbhoj are as follows: Asayach (Jaisalmer), Jaleli Faujdaran (jodhpur), Bhadwasiya (Jodhpur); Khara (bikaner), Sankhwas & Satika (Nagaur) etc

The Hool Gahlots, Mangalia Gahlots, & Asayach Gahlots. have had intertwned histories with Marwarโ€™s Chauhans, Parihars, and Rathores.


Panch-pir MEHAJI MANGALIA, Rock Sculptures at Mandor

(4) The fourth Guhilot khaap in Marwar, the Pipariya or Pipada, take their name from Pipar city in Jodhpur district. Tod affirms their existence through inscriptions naming Bijai Guhilot and Delanji Guhilot found in a Laxmi temple [33].They are known to have taken the city from Takshak or Tak rajputs in unknown date before 10th century. History of Oswals mentions a Raja Karamchand Gahlot was converted to Jainism in V.S. 1072 (1015 CE) from whom the Pipada gotra comes [34] ; Tod found the city to have 1500 houses, one third of which belonged to Jains. A Pipariya Kelan Guhilot was a maternal uncle of Chauhan Someshwar (father of Prithviraj III) and his feudatory at Hissar [35] (Mandawa, p. 139) . Some known villages of Pipada Guhilot rajputs are: Barmerโ€™s Dharamsar (in Balotra tehsil), & Nimbdi Chandavtan. Bijaliya Thikana (tehsil Bhinmal, Jalore) was a Thikana of Pipara Guhilots upto independence.

Apart from this Kuchera branch of Ahada Guhilots, with origin in Kuchera [33:1] Town in Nagaur, had Junjala, Dhoondhiya, Dotolai , Jatera, Basni Gehlotan thikana in Nagaur; Dewatra & Raikoriya Thikanas in Jodhpur. Rao Dolatsingh Gehlot of Kuchera was father-in-law of Rao Chundaji Rathore and aided the latter in his war against the Nagaur Tak Dandani sultans. Kuchera was given to Ahada Dolatsinghji by Rao Chundaji for his services against the Nagaur sultans. Rao Dudaji Mertiya Rathore also had his sasural in Kucheraโ€™s Gehlots and Rao Veeramdeoji Mertiyaโ€™s mother was also a Gehlot of Kuchera.
(Ref : Hukum Singh Bhati, Rajasthan ke Mertiya Rathore)

After establishment of Rathore hegemony in Marwar, most saw socioeconomic decline from their semi-feudatory status and kins of earliest Rathore Kings to soldiers of the latter , due to denial of Jagirs over generations. Though post-independence, some have again seen socioeconomic mobility due to education and government jobs.

II. GUHILOTS of WESTERN UP & BRAJ

Rawal Khumman IIIโ€™s son Rawal Bhartripatt Guhilot established Bhatewar village (Bhinder tehsil,Udaipur). This became the Bhatewar khaap of Guhilots . Salarsi Guhilot of Bhatewar migrated to Ghaziabad in Western UP alongwith his brothers and established Dasna tehsil during the Ghaznavid period (11th-12th century)(Ref here) and received a fief of 60 villages from Chauhan emperors. They have 60 villages in West UPโ€™s Saatha-Chaurasi [36].Their largest village is Sapnawat (Hapur tehsil, Ghaziabad) . Dhaulana is a famous & prominent Guhilot village, situated on the Meerut-Hapur-Bulandshahr Road in Gulaothi which played a vital role in the freedom struggle (ref: Eric Stokes, The Peasant Armed, p. 174). Noted Educationist and politician Manish Sisodia is from village Phagota (Dhaulana Block, Ghaziabad).

Manish-Sisdoia

(d) ๐—š๐˜‚๐—ต๐—ถ๐—น๐—ผ๐˜๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ง๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ธ- ๐—–๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜๐˜€๐˜‚, near Jaipur who Sinha suggests started their power from Tonk probably much earlier in 7th century AD. One of the ancestors of Guhilot chief of Chatsu was named Dhanika , which is also the name of a Dhavagarta Guhilot Chief of 7th century . This section of Gahlots continued to have illustrious chiefs like Baladitya who were not only famed feudatories of the Imperial Pratihars of Kannauj but whose chiefs even married into chief lineage of Imperial Chauhans (also called Sambhar Chauhans) [37].This group probably included both Dhavagarta.

Rana Katira Gahlot is said to have migrated to Mahaban tehsil in Mathura before 1200s and the Jalesar fort is attributed to him. His son, Digpal married Mahaban Rajaโ€™s daugher and inherited Mahaban fortress too (Mathura Gazetter; Drake D.L.) [38]. They take their name from a forest cover called bachhban(เคฌเค›เฅเคฌเคจ) and are called Bachhals ( เคฌเคพเค›เคฒ) Guhilots. They have 42 villages in Mathura,12 villages in Bulandshehr, 18 villages in Badayun and 12 villages in Farrukhabad.
Then there are 30-40 villages in Kanpur-Kannauj borders who are said to be descendants of Prithvirajโ€™s feudal Govindray Gahlot and puportedly write Gomil as khaap. Apart from these, there are 12-16 rajput villages near Fatehpur Sikri who write themselves Sisodiyas but maybe some older Khaap. Apart from this, there are 40-50 Gahlot rajput villages in Hathras received as land grants during the time of Imperial Chauhans of Ajmer.

III. GUHILOTS of SAURASHTRA

(e) ๐—š๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—น๐—ผ๐˜๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ด๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—น, Saurashtra rose as thakkura of Imperial Caulukya (Imperial Solankis) as per Sobhadi Vao Stone inscription dated 1146 [39] This branch, probably from Kiskindha, became feudatory of Imperial Solankis by the turn of 1st millennium CE. The Gohil population of Saurashtra, especially at Bhavnagar, Palitana, Lathi, Vala, Bakrol and Rajpipla trace origins to this branch or to the later migrants from Khed.
As per Nainsi Gohils of Khed (near Balotra) were defeated by Rao Asthan in the 13th century, after which many migrated to Jaisalmer, Sorath and Palitana in Saurashtra, and Sehore in MP. These lineages call themselves Gohil and their tract in Saurashtra was once called Gohilvad[40].

Some Guhilots are also found in Dharampur (in Valsad, Gujarat), where a dynasty was established in 1295.

IV. GUHILOT Rajputs of MEWAR & MALWA


Chittorgarh Fort

Tibadkiyas are found in 12 villages in Pratapgarh in Mewar, apart from Senai (Luni), Jhalamand (Jodhpur) while Mundawots are found in Bagol (Rajsamand), Amasar (Bikaner), Kathmore (pali), Gorisar ( Ratangarh, Churu), Beethri(Phalodi, Jodhpur).

Ajabriya khaap of Guhilots trace origin from Ajabra village, Sarada tehsil, Udaipur ,established by certain Guhilot Ajabsi in 14th century. Today, Ajabra itself is ruled by Kitawat Sisodiyas( descendants of Kitaji s/o Sattaji brother of Rana Kumbha), while all Ajabriya population still resides in villages around Jaisamand in Udaipur. Ajabra, Adwas (Sarda tehsil), Jawad (Sarda tehsil), Jagat, Guda, Rodada (Girwa tehsil), Charmar, Datishar, Majawada (Bhinder tehsil, Udaipur), Sadadi, Mithodi, Bori, Lag, Shishvi,Narsar, Juni sar, Magra Dhori.

The largest non-Sisodia khaap in Malwa is Kelwa Guhilots, who take their name from Kelwa (probably of Rajsamand), which gets its name Rao Kelan Gahlot. Today, this village belongs to Jaitmalot Rathores, as most Kelwas gradually moved west to Jhalawar in Hadauti and Malwa. Kelwa villages in Jhalawar include: Sunel,Kotadi,Pidava,Gagron,Sinduriya,Lalganv or Mahodiya in Sehore (MP):
While the eldest son of Rawal Ransimha alias Karnsimha (1158-1168 CE) named Rawal Khemsimha succeeded his father at Chittaurgarh, Ransimhaโ€™s younger sons Rahap and Mahap were given Shishoda in Nathdwara tehsil of Rajsamand [41]. Of the two, Mahap took refuge with Vagad Chauhans, leaving Sisoda to Rahap. Rahapโ€™s descendants became Sisodias, took their demonym from the Shishoda village. His one descendant Chandraji (few generations before the famous Hammir) migrated from Shishoda to Antri in Neemuch, thereby establishing Chandrawat Sisodiyas, who would later on also establish Rampura (Neemuch).

Movement of Guhilot lineages of Mewar into neighbouring Malwa was a reasonable route for political mobility for aspiring individuals without seeking any political struggle back home.

Ahariya or Ahada Guhilots, the parent lineage, ruled Mewar (Mewar of those days, excluded Vagod & Bhomat) first from Nagda-Ahad & later from Chittaurgarh after its conquest by Guhilot Jaitrasimha (1214-1252 CE) upon fall of Imperial Chauhans. Sometime before, a military debacle against Chaulukyas caused Ahada Samantsimhadeva Guhilot to abdicate in favour of his younger brother Ahada Kumarsimha Guhilot in 1180 CE, and establish his power at Vagod, which until a century was under Vagadiya Parmars, vassals of Malwa Parmars. Both Dungarpur and Banswara dynasties trace their origin to him [42].

The Ahada dynasty at Chittaur was ended with invasion of Khilji in 1303 during Ratansimha, a descendant of Ahada Kumarsimha Guhilot. However, the Ahadas continue to remain the largest khaap of Guhilots in Mewar and Marwar. Sometime later, a feudatory cadet of Ahada Guhilots with origin probably in Shishoda, Nathdwara led by Hammir reestablished Guhilot power at Chittaurgarh ousting the representatives of Tughlaq power in post-Khilji era Hammir, s/o Arisimha from his Sonigra Chandana wife , styled himself with the demonym Sisodia and all the three dynasties - Udaipur, Pratapgarh, and Shahpura derive lineage from him. The Gogunda inscription of his son , Rana Kheta or Kshetrasimha dtd 1366 AD reflect an absolute assertion of sovereignty [43]. Prof Nandini Kapur Sinha notes that evdence of their sovereignty is amply borne out by royal records. Rana Khetaโ€™s son Rana Lakha was married to Rao Chundaji Rathoreโ€™s daughter Hansabai, whose own nanera .endants through his son Dulhaji became Dulhawat Sisodiyas and his descendants through his grandson Sarangdev s/o kunwar Ajja singh became Sarangdevot.
He was succeeded by his youngest son from Hansabai Rathore, Rana Mokal. Sisodia Mokalโ€™s descendants through son Suvaji became Suvawats and those through his grandson Kitaji s/o Saktaji became Kitawats. His daughter Lalbai was married to Acchaldas Khichi. Mokal was succeded by his son Rana Kumbha, son of Sankhla Sobhagyadevi. Kumbhaโ€™s descendants through his son Uda are called Kumbhawats.


Forts built by Rana Kumbha, [44]

Maharana Udai Singh II, established Udaipur. He was progenitor of Ranawats (through Maharana Pratap), Shaktawats (through Shakti Singhji) and Veermdevot (through Veeramdev). While Maharana Pratapโ€™s descendants through his first 10 sons are called Ranawats , his descendants through his 11th son Puranmal who received Mangrop and are called Purawats.

The Guhilots of Avasgadh, Barwani , Alirajpur & Ratanmal also included many Guhilots,who traced their migrations to Guhilot Dhundhuk s/o Guhilot Mattata Guhilot [45]. They are There is a famous village of Pipalia Sisodia, settled by the clan.

V. Guhilots of East UP & Bihar

The Guhilots of Bihar use Sisodia, however they have two branches - Mahthan, descendants of Manthansimha and Madiyar Guhilots of Gaya with origin in Devgadh (Rajsamand,Mewar) [46].The famous 1857 rebel leader Veer Kunwar Singh was married into Guhilots of Deo-Munga (Gaya).

VI. Guhilots of Himachal & Uttarakhand


Brig. Govind Sisodia, the hero of 26/11, is from Bharno vill, Chaupal teh, Shimla (source: here) (Pic: Source here)

Some guhilots are also found in Tharooch and Dadhi in Himachal and in Uttarakhand. The Basera Rajputs of Seerakot, Pithoragarh pribably also trace origins from Basera (teh Chhoti Sadri, Pratapgarh).


REFERENCES


  1. . Nandini Kapur Sinha; State Formation in Rajasthan:Mewar during the 7th-15th century, p. 38 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  2. R. C. Majumdar (1977); Ancient India;p. 298-299 ; R V Somani, Ram Vallabh Somani (1976);History of Mewar, from Earliest Times to 1751 A.D; p. 34 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  3. The Currencies of Hindu States of Rajputana, p. 6 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  4. Nandini Kapur Sinha; State Formation in Rajasthan; Mewar, p. 37 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  5. ibid, p. 34 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  6. ibid, p. 34-35 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  7. ibid, p. 35 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  8. Dabok Inscription of the Reign of Mori king Dhavalappadeva of 644 AD โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  9. B S Mehta, J S Mehta; Chittorgarh: The Cradle of Chivalry and Culture, p. 17 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  10. G S L Devra, Arab Invasions and Decline of Western Maurya Confederacy, Indian History Congress Vol. 76 (2015), pp. 195p. 37-38 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  11. Nandini Kapur Sinha; State Formation in Rajasthan; Mewar, p. 77-78 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  12. Jain, Kailash Chand (1972). Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan, A Study of Culture and Civilization; p. 213-219. โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  13. Nandini Kapur Sinha; State Formation in Rajasthan; Mewar, p. 37 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  14. Ram Vallabh Somani (1976); โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  15. Raghunath Kalipahadi; Kshatriya Rajvansh; p. 239 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  16. AL Friedberg, IS Friedberg; Gold Coins of the World-9th edition; p. 481 ; Ray, Himanshu Prabha; Negotiating Cultural Identities โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  17. Nandini Kapur Sinha, p. 39 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  18. Ram Vallabh Somani (1976);History of Mewar, from Earliest Times to 1751 A.D; p. 45 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  19. Nandini Kapur Sinha; p. 57 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  20. Inscriotion of Guhila Dhanika, 684 AD, Uniyara tehsil, Tonk; D C Sircar; The Guhilas of Kiskindha, p. 31-32 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  21. Nandini Kapur Sinha, p. 63 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  22. R. B. Singh (1964), History of the Chฤhamฤna, p. 264 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  23. Nandini Kapur Sinha, p. 55 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  24. PRAS, WC, 1909,P. 42 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  25. Devi Singh Mandhawa; Prithviraj Chauhan; p. 140 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  26. Shivnathsingh; Kumpawat Rathoro ka Itihaas;p. 70 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  27. PRAS, WC, 1911-12,p. 53 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  28. Nainsi ri Khyat โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  29. Nainsi, Vigat I, p. 21 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  30. PRAS, WC, 1909, p. 42 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  31. PRAS, WC, 1909, p. 42 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  32. V.S. Shrivastavya, Parmars of Abu-Chandravati & their Descendants ,p. 31 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  33. Tod, Chapter 7, Annals & Antiquities. Pipar is celebrated in the traditions of the desert as one of the cities [738] founded by Gandharvasen, the Pramara monarch of Avanti, prior to the Christian era.[3] The only inscription I discovered was in a temple of the sea-goddess Lakshmi. It bore the names of Bijai Singh and Delanji, Rajputs of the Guhilot race, with the ancient title of Rawal. It was a happy confirmation of the most ancient chronicle of Mewar, which divides the Guhilots into twenty-four sakha or branches, of which one is called โ€˜Piparia,โ€™ doubtless from their having conquered this tract from the Takshak Pramara. โ†ฉ๏ธŽ โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  34. History of Oswals, p. 571 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  35. Dasrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties, p. 74 ; Mandawa, Prithviraj Chauhan, p. 139 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  36. Sattha Chaurasi, NDTV โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  37. D C Sircar, Guhilas of Kiskindha, p. 20-4,33 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  38. D L Drake, Mathura - a Gazetteer - Madhuban tehsil; p. 274 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  39. A Collection of Prakrit and Sanskrit Inscriptions, Bhavnagar, p. 158-160 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  40. Jutta Jain-Neubauer, The Stepwells of Gujarat: In Art-historical Perspective; p. 11 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  41. G.S. Ojha; History of Dungarpur State, p. 45 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  42. G.S. Ojha; History of Dungarpur State, p. 45 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  43. Shodh Patrika, Vikram Sa,mvat 2010 ; p. 57 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  44. Nandini Kapur Sinha, p. 175 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  45. Rajput Shakhaon ka itihaas; p. 119 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

  46. Rajput vanshavali; p. 71 โ†ฉ๏ธŽ

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Very good post. Your posts are some of my favorite to read anywhere online.
Just one question: who are the proto-Guhilots?

Thanks. Guha was a single person in 5th centuryโ€ฆAll Guhilots are his descendants. While inscriptions are silent about Guhaโ€™s origins, later day folklores connect him with Maitrakas on account that during the same period there was a Maitrak King Guhaditya. In that , one may connect them to Maitrakas , Aulikaras or Sibis โ€” the latter two ruled Mewar before Moris.

Maitrakas were descended of some Gupta general who conquered Saurastra. It would be interesting if all of the rajput clan starters (Guhadatta, Vasudeva Chauhan, Harichandra) were generals in yashodharmans army. After all, it were Rajasthanis who drove MihirGul out of India.

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