Parihar/Pratihar/Padiyar Rajaputras: Origins, Migrations & Settlements

A Brief NOTE:- Origins of Parihar clan have been deliberately controverted for political aims chiefly by two groups- those who misinterpret the “vipra” & “dwija” used in the Ghatiyala inscription dated 861 CE to misidentify their progenitor as a Brahmin and those on the other hand who term them Gujjars by deliberately misinterpreting the demonym “Gurjara” used by a Pratihar cadet branch ruling from Rajorgarh in 10th century. To cite “vipra” & “dwij” to only mean “brahmin”, is clearly a misrepresentation by Bhandarkar. Furthermore with the abundant knowledge of Brahmin dynasties such as Utpalas of Kashmir or Chachs of Alor available, it is discernible that Brahmin dynasties never took to refer to themselves as anything else but Brahmin. As for the Gujjar origin theory, Parihars have always emphasized their Kshatriya origin, and never have attempted to associate even remotely with the Gujjar caste in any inscription or accounts.

Even well-meaning Historians like Dasratha Sharma have often wrongly suggested that since there was no proclamation by the different Parihars that they belonged to the same clan, they may have been different, However, this argument skips the fact that the Mandore Parihars and the Gurjara Parihars were both not just contemporaries of the Imperial Parihars but also had a mutual vassal-suzerain relationship. Rather, if true, the Imperial Parihars would have already discredited the other two or at the least, highlighted the different orgins of themselves vis-a-vis their namesakes Vassals in their records.The absence of any such assertion, rather proves that there was mutual acceptance of common origins.

These non Rajput non Parihar groups actively misappropriate and exploit Parihar identity while at the same time overlooking the perspective of the actual Parihar clansmen, this account here written using both early medieval Parihar inscriptions and modern scholarship also takes in account the perspectives of the modern Parihar writers on their own clan.


The Vasantgarh Inscription dated VS 682 (625 AD) of Varmlata Chavda is the earliest inscriptional evidence of the Pratihar clan [1] .This inscription from Vasantgarh village (Pindwara tehsil, Sirohi) describes Rajjila and his father Vajrabhata Satyashraya, were vassals of Varmlata Chavda and ruled from Arbuda-desa [2].This Rajjila is confirmed by B.N. Puri to be Rajjila Pratihar [3].

However, the earliest Pratihar inscription discussing the origins of the clan is the Jodhpur Inscription of Bauka Parihar dtd 837 CE, that also explains the name of the clan, as Parihars claim ancestory from Lakshmana who acted as door-keeper for his brother Rambhadra [4]. Its fourth verse says “In as much as the very brother of Ramabhadra performed the duty of door-keeper, this illustrious clan came to be known as Pratihara[5].

The Adivaraha coinage of the Pratihara ruler Bhoja I alias MIhirbhoj who is known by the same title, 850-900 CE.Source: here

NOTE :- Both these inscriptions, precede the Ghatiyala inscription (861 CE) as well as the Rajor Inscription (960 CE) which are misinterpreted to allude to a Brahmin or a Gujjar ancestory respectively.
The Prakrit Ghatiyala inscription (861 CE) of Kakkuka Parihar , claims both origin from Lakshmana and names the progenitor of the clan Harishchandra, who is addressed as a "vipra" married to a kshatriya wife and a brahman wife [6]. However the name Harischandra (epitome of truthfulness), like the adjective vipra (which only means learned), seem more symbolic for Vajrabhata Satyashraya - the progenitor of the clan [7]. This inscription, which is much after the Vasantgarh & Bauka’s Inscriptions, is the only one describing Vajrabhat as such.

In verse 5: he is addressed as Viprah sri Harichandra and verse 6: Dvijah sri Harichandra.Nowhere the word Brahman is used, except at one place in Verse 8, where the word Brahmin is used for his brahmin wife.These words “Dvij” & “vipra” were only misrepresented as “Brahmin” by Bhandarkar, though none of the two words were exclusively used for brahmins

As for the usage of “Gurjara” in Rajor Iscription of Pratihar Mathandev (961CE) for himself, we have already discussed the demonymic nature of it here.

I. Mandore Parihars

Vajrabhatta’s four sons : Bhogbhatta, Kakka, Rajjila & Dadda conquered Mandavyapura (present Mandore) and established a rampart [8]. Vajrabhatt was followed by his third son Rajjila who was a vassal of Varmlata Chavda.
While Vajrabhata is the progenitor of all the Pratihars, the Mandore kings traced their lineage his third son Rajilla Parihar [9], Bhogbhatt migrated to Arbuda-desa (Abu region) and Dadda migrated to Matsya pradesa (Alwar-Dausa).

Mandore Fort, Jodhpur

Rajjila’s grandson, Nagabhata, shifted his capital from Mandore to Merta.The original capital still retained its importance, as Nagabhata’s successor Tata is said to have retired there [10]. All the three towns - Mandore, Nagaur & Merta - were once ruled by Nagvanshi Rajputs [11].
His descendant Shiluka is said to have “fixed a perpetual boundary” between the Stravani and Valla (present Jaisalmer) countries. He is also said to have “knocked down” the Bhattika Devaraja (or Rawal Devraj Bhati) of Valla [12]. This appears to be a reference to his victory over the neighbouring rulers. Stravani can be identified with a place in the modern Jaisalmer district and has been mentioned as “Taban” by the Arab writers.

Shiluka Parihar also excavated a tank, established a new city and commissioned the Siddheshvara Mahadeva temple at a place called Treta [13]. Kakka Pratihar is said to have gained fame in the battle of Mudgagiri (modern Munger, Bihar) against Gauda rulers in the campaign of his overlord Nagbhatt II Parihar of Ujjain [14]. Kakka had two sons - Bauka & Kakkuka , both of who ruled one after the other; Kakkuka (861 CE) was the last ruler of this dynasty when it was overshadowed by the Bhinmal branch which also gave rise to Imperial Parihar dynasty of Avanti/Kannauj.

Later, Nahar Rao Parihar re-established Mandore in VS 1100 (1043 CE) and by that time, Mandore became a feudatory of Nadol Chauhans and remained so until the latter’s decline in 12th century [15].
Nahar Rao’s great-grandson Amayak Parihar had many sons from whom many Parihar branches rose - Luloji Parihar from whom Lulawat , Suraji from whom Surawats, Ramawats from Ramaji Parihar [16]. Amayak Parihar also had a son Sodhak , whose son Inda became progenitor of Inda Parihars [17].
In 1159 CE, Balak Rao Parihar commissioned the Balsamand Lake (Jodhpur) as a water reservoir to cater to Mandore.

Balsamand Lake

In the middle of 14th century, Mandore came under the control of Delhi’s Tughlaq Sultanate. At that time,Mandore was under the Subedar of Mandu and a Governor ruled on his behalf. The Governor ordered the Pratihars residing in surrounding villages to send grass for horses. The Pratihars, under the pretense of cartloads of grass, concealed their fully armed men in every cart. The cartman as well as his assisstant were disguised Rajput warriors. After the arrival of these carts, the Parihars came out of their concealment and killed the Turks to occupy Mandore in 1395 CE [18].
But with an understanding that they wouldn’t be able to hold onto Mandore for long, they handed over Mandore to their new ally, Rao Chundaji Rathore, who they also gave an Inda princess, daughter of Hamir Parihar Inda in marriage.

1. Indas

In return, Indas retired from Mandore and took up 84 villages to the west of Mandore upto Pokhran , as their Jagir after making Chundaji take an oath that the Rathores wouldn’t interfere in Indawati [19].

"इंडो रा उपकार , कमधज कदई नीं बिसरे ।
चुण्डा चंवड़ी चाड़, दियो मंडोवर दायाजै।।"

Of the 84 villages of Indawaati which mostly covers Balesar (Jodhpur) and Shergarh tehsils of Jodhpur — Indas have a dominant presence in 27 villages of Indawaati. Rao Chandrasen had many Inda chiefs like Banakar Inda, Bandheer Inda and Varjangot Inda among his loyalists. A Mughal subedar Khwaja established thanas in Indawati, which led to scuffle with Indas in which the Subedar was killed.

Similarly, during the conflicts with Aurangzeb, Durgadas Rathore’s comrades included Bhoj Inda & Jaisingh Inda. Ramchandra Inda after organizing all Indas attacked and killed Mughal Subedar Yusuf Khan, after which he received the Dugar Thikana (Balesar tehsil, Jodhpur).

2. Lulawats

The seniormost branch Lulawats left Mandore and retired to Chhayan village(Pokharan tehsil, Jaisalmer), which became their base.
A particular Lulawat Belaji Parihar and his brethren aided Rao Bikaji Rathore in the conquest of Jangladesh and hence were granted some Jagirs in return[20]. Belasar(Bikaner tehsil, Bikaner) was established by Belaji Parihar. He became the first Pratihar Thakur of Samandsar in Bikaner.

Udasar (Bikaner tehsil, Bikaner), Kunpalsar (teh Sridungargarh, Bikaner), Rajpura Hudan (teh Lunkaransar, Bikaner), Verasar, Dulchasar (teh Sridungargarh, Bikaner),Napaasar (teh Bikaner, Bikaner), Surdhana Padiharan (teh Bikaner, Bikaner) are some other villages of Parihars in Jangladesh [21]. “Sani Parihar” was a term used for the Parihars employed as hereditary horsemen of the Bikaner State [22]. In total, there were 17 Jagiri villages of Lulawat Parihar/Pratihars in Bikaner [23]. Ransigaon (Bilara tehsil, Jodhpur) is another prominent village of Lulawats. They are also found in a few villages of Nokha of Bikaner & Osiya tehsil of Jodhpur. Nandri village in Jodhpur Tehsil, Jodhpur City is a thikana of Lulawat Parihars.
Prominent Advocate Goverdhan Singh Parihar of Bikaner is a Lulawat

3. Nadawats, Ramawats/Ramotas ,Bothas

(A) The Nadawats are derived from Nadaji Parihar Lulawat, a contemporary of Rao Chundaji. They are found in Jhalalar (Jayeli tehsil, Nagaur) and Malgaon (Nagaur tehsil, Nagaur)…

(B) The Ramawats are found chiefly in Bikaner Panch-pir Ramdevji Tanwar’s sister was married into Ramawats of Pugal (Bikaner); Ramawats lost Pugal to Sankhlas who in turn lost it to Bhattis.

(C ) The Botha Parihars reside in Phalodi tehsil of Mandore [24].

3. Sondhia Parihars

The Sondhia Parihars[25] are descendants of Lulawat Deepsingh’s son Sondh who established Sondhwad covering Jhalawar’s Pirawa tehsil and adjacent parts of Mandsaur. The Sondhia Parihars alongwith other Rajputs, namely Chauhan, Panwar, Kachwahas of Sondhwad make up Sondhia Caste, a subcaste of the Rajput community.

II. Parihars of North

1. Kharal Pratihars of West Punjab

Rai Ammo Kharal, Source: here

The Kharal Parihars are an older branch of Parihars that resided in Jangladesh since before Bikaji, mentioned by Nainsi in his Khyat “Kunwarsi Sankhla ri Khyat” mentions Kunwarsi Sankhla’s matrimonial alliance with Rana Venidas Kharal of Palu village(Rawatsar tehsil, Hanumangarh)[26] (Read here)

Bikaji Rathore’s conquest of Jangladesh and establishment of a centralised State in the region, forced most older Rajput clans into neighbouring parts of Punjab.
Rai Ahmad Khan Kharal also called Amo Kharal (1785–1857) was a Punjabi freedom fighter & folkhero who fought against the British Raj in the Indian Rebellion of 1857)[27].

2. Takhi Parihars

They are descendants of one Pratihar Harihar Dev who migrated from Rajasthan to Punjab in 10th century. While visiting Kangra, he married daughter of a Katoch Trilokchand, the then ruler of Kangra-Jalandhar and was granted a few estates. He was probably appointed there by Kannauj’s Emperor Bhojdev Parihar II (910-913 CE) as per oral history. [28].

(A) Both Sikh Parihars & Hindu Parihars (written as Parhar in Punjabi) are scattered across Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Amritsar & Sialkot. Kalra (Adhampur tehsil, Jalandhar),Adampur tehsil (Jalandhar), Lutera Khurd (Adhampur tehsil, Jalandhar), Karnana (Nawanshahr tehsil, Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar), Chauhan village (Jalandhar), Kaki Pind (Jalandhar) are all villages of Sikh Parihar Rajputs [29].

Khaneti darbar, Khaneti village, Kumharsain tehsil, Shimla It was residence of Parihar heads of Himachal

(B) In Himachal (formerly Punjab hills), they are found in Kangra, Una & Bilaspur districts. Khaneti & Kumharsain were two princely states ruled by Parihars of this branch. Shimla has the highest population of Parihar Rajputs in Himachal, and most medieval Parihar fief are in Shimla district.

(C ) In Jammu region, they have their preponderance in Kishtwar district and the adjascent Bhaderwaha tehsil of Doda. Trithlu village (Bhalessa tehsil,Doda) was a Pratihar Thikana until independence.

3. Parihars of Uttarakhand

At the time of Ajaypal Parmar’s ascent to power in Garhwal in early 14th century, there were 52 Garhis. At that time, ShriGuru Garhi at Salan Gaon (Dehradun tehsil, Dehradun) was ruled by a few Parihars/Padiyar families [30]. In Kumaon, their main presence was in Padiyar Kot (?).

III. Descendants of Nagabhatt I Pratihar - Bhinmal Parihars & Abu Parihars

Nagbhatt I - slayer of Gurjaras, founder of Imperial Pratihar dynasty

The eldest son of Vajrabhata Satyashraya or Harichandra was Bhojbhatt Pratihar, who migrated to Abu-Bhinmal tract as a feudatory of Varmlata Chavda. As repeated Arab-Chawda conflicts weakened the Chawdas, it also marked the rise of Nagbhatt Pratihar I (730–760). This was the period when Arab expeditions undertaken by Junaid, the general of Khalid Hasham (724-743 CE) took place. According Futuhu-i-Buldan of Al-Biladuri ,Junaid sent expeditions to Barus (Bharuch), Marmad, Mandal, Dalmaj, Ujjain Baharimand,Vallamala (Jaisalmer) and Jurz (Gurjara) [31].

These expeditions politically weakened the Chawda rajputs of Bhinmal, Mori/Moriya rajputs of Chittor and Gurjara rulers of Bharuch (Lata) , and created an opportunity for the sudden rise of Nagbhatt I Pratihar, also called Nagavlok.

The Gallaka inscripton (795 CE) by Gallaka, a contemporary of Nagbhatt’s grand-nephew Vatsraja Pratihar (780–800) hails “Nagbhatt for defeating the invincible Gurjaras” (here Karnvamsi Gurjara dynasty of Bharuch) [32] - which was supllanted by Bhartrvaddha II Chauhan as feudatory ruling in the name of Nagavlok .The Gwalior inscription of Bhoj Pratihar attests to Nagbhatt I’s victory over mlecchas (Arabs led by Junaid & Tamin) [33]. Hence, Emperor Nagbhatt I - founded Imperial Pratihar dynasty with Bhinmal as his capital [34]. On account of his destruction of Karnvamsi Gurjaras of Bharuch and also his conquest over the Gurjaradesa, he was titled “Gurjarendra”.

1. Deval Pratihars

Lohiyana Garh of Dewal Pratihars, Jaswantpura village, Jaswantpura tehsil, Jalore

However, Nagbhatt I wasn’t succeded by his sons. Instead of his sons He was succeded by his nephews Kakkuka and Devraja in quick successions [35].

Nagbhatt’s son was Lakshmivar(760-787 CE), & his grandson Pragsen Pratihar was a contemporary of Emperor Vatsraj Pratihar (780–800) - son of Devraja Pratihar. It was during Vatsraja’s reign that the Imperial capital was shifted to Avanti/Ujjain, giving Bhinmal to descendants of Nagavlok or Nagbhatt I. Hence, Pragsen Pratihar of Bhinmal became a feudatory of his cousins [36] and Pragsen was followed by Karamsen or Karmayat [37], a contemporary of Emperor Nagbhatt II Pratihar.
The rule of Emperor Rambhadra Pratihar(833-836 CE) saw many rebellions by feudatories who saw an opportunity to break free. Raja Karamsen’s son Raja Vasudev Pratihar of Bhinmal helped the next Emperor, Mihirbhoj Pratihar(836–885) in crushing these recalcitrant feudatories [38]. During the reign of Emperor, Bhoja Pratihar(910–913), both the Pratihars of Mandore and the Pratihars of Abu rebelled and were reigned in only with the help of Bhinmal’s Bainraj Pratihar[39].

Bainraj was followed by his son Harichandra Pratihar, whose son was Raja Sagirath Pratihar. The Sagi river flowing from Jaswanthpura hills in Bhinmal, is named after him. Sagirath Pratihar’s son was Raja Chakravarth Pratihar whose daughter was married to Rao Laxman Chauhan of Nadol (950-982 CE). Jalor or Jabalipura was founded by Jabali Pratihar.
Chakravarth’s son was Suran, whose son Raja Man Pratihar ruled Bhinmal when Parmar Emperor Vakpati Munja(972-990 CE) invaded the region — after the conquest, Vakpati Munja divided these conquered territories among Parmar princes - his son Aranyaraj Parmar was granted Abu, his son Chandan Parmar was given Jalore and his nephew Dharnivarah Parmar was given Jalore [40].
This ended almost two hundred fifty years Pratihar rule over Bhinmal.

Sundha Mata Mandir, Bhinmal was first constructed by Dewal Pratihars with support from Imperial Chauhans in 12th century

The son of Raja Man Pratihar ,Dewalsimha Pratihar was a contemporary of Abu’s Raja Mahipal Parmar (1000-1014 CE). Raja Devalsimha made many attempts to free his country or to re-establish Pratihar hold onto Bhinmal but in vain [41]. Finally he settled for the territories in Southwest of Bhinmal, comprising four hills - Dodasa, Nadwana,Kala-Pahad and Sundha. He made Lohiyana (present Jaswanthpura) his capital. Hence this subclan became Dewal Pratihars. Gradually their jagir included 52 villages in and around modern Jalore district. The Dewals participated in Jalore’s Chauhan Kanhaddeo’s resistance against Allauddin Khilji . Thakur Dhawalsimha Dewal of Lohiyana supplied manpower to Maharana Pratap and married his daughter to the Maharana, in return Maharana gave him the title of “Rana” which has stayed with them till this day [42].

Second Lt. Devpal Singh Deval (1949-1971), Veer Chakra, Pic Courtesy: Honorpoint

Second Lieutenant Devpal Singh Deval was born on 6th May 1949 in Jodhpur, Rajasthan as the eldest son of Thakur Bhawani Danji Deval of Basani Dadhawariyan (Dist. Pali, Rajasthan). After doing his graduation in English literature, he joined the 5th Gorkha Rifles Regiment and took part in the Operation Cactus Lily, where his action was decisive in changing the course of the battle, in which he attained martyrdom.

Some villages of Dewal Pratihars : Pooran, Panseri, Gajapura, Kalapura , Shivgarh in Bhinmal tehsil of Jalore; Dadoki, Silasan, Tejawas, Roda, Chitrodi in Raniwara tehsil of Jalore; Jitpura, Vada, Padar, Gajipura in Jaswantpura tehsil of Jalor and Pahadpura in Jaswantpura tehsil of Jalore. Sinla Akhawas (Pali)

There are 4 sub-branches: Manawat Dewals, Dharawat Dewals, Akhawat and Vaghawat Dewals.

Malwara Thikana in Jalore belongs to Vaghawat Dewals.

2. Dabhi Pratihars

They are descendants of Naghatt I’s kins at Abu and derive their name from Dabsimha Pratihar of Arbudanchal . They lost their power at Abu, before the Parmars.
In the 13th century, Rao Asthan Rathore s/o Rao Sihaji Rathore took the help of Dabhis of Khed (Balotra tehsil, Barmer) who were pradhans to unseat Gohils of Khed and later also unsettled Dabhis from Khed [43].
Dabiyo ka Guda (teh Khamnor, Rajsamand district) is also named after this Parihar khaap and hints at their presence in its early history.

In the present, Dabhi rajputs are found in Sabarkantha and a few in Godwad. Dangarwa State near Mahesana and Pindwara Jagir in (Pindwara tehsil, Sirohi) belonged to Dabhi Pratihars until independence.

3. Jaamdaa Pratihars (जामडा)

As the Bhattis migrated from Yadu ki Dang in Jhelum Salt range towards south, they displaced Varhas Parmar (or Varya rajputs) from Derawar, Langha Solankis & Bhutta Solankis from Lodruva and Jamda Pratihars from Tanot. Jamda Pratihars still reside in a few villages, just that they have started calling themselves Sisodias out of ignorance.

(Ref: Jaisalmer Rajya ka madhyakalina itihasa by Hariballabha Mahesvari Jaisala, 1997)

4. Bari Shakha

The Bari Shakha migrated to Mewar in 17th century [44] and from then on into Gujarat. They have scattered presence (written as Padiyar) in Saurashtra and Surendranagar district. Many of them presumably became Karadiya Rajputs, a subcaste of Rajputs in Gujarat.

5. Jethwas of Porbandar

Often associated with their predecessor Saindhavs of Porbandar, Muhnot Nainsi in his 17th century Khyat describes them as a subclan of Pratihars (Ref: Muhnot Nainsi ki Khyat-Part-1, p. 222) , who had defeated Saindhavs under the leadership of Nagbhatt II Pratihar. The copper plate inscription of Ranaka Bashkaladeva dated 987 CE found at Ghulmi show that he was probably a vassal of Imperial Solankis of Patan and ruled “Jyeshthukadesha”, a region around Ghumli. But the inscription does not refer to Saindhavas or their descendants. It is assumed that between 920 CE and 987 CE, the rule of the Saindhavas ended. This branch of Pratihars came to be called Jethwas, Prakrit for Jyeshthuka. [Ref: Political and Cultural History of Gujarat: Maitraka Era and Post-Maitraka Era,Hariprasad G Shastri (1974) ].

They ruled the Porbandar region from their capital at Ghumli, until in 1313 when Rana Bhanji Jethwa was defeated by Barmaniyaji Jadeja and was forced to shift capital to Ranpur. The father of Mahatma Gandhi, Karamchand Gandhi served as Dewan under Rana Vikmatji Jethwa.

Bust of Udaybhansinhji Natwarsinhji Jethwa, Pic Courtesy:

One of the last important members of the Jethwa Pratihar branch, was Udaybhansinhji Natwarsinhji Jethwa who was the founder annd first chairperson of Indian Farmers Fertilisers Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) from 1968-1973. He received Padma Shri , awarded by Government of India in 1971. The National Council of Cooperative Training (NCCT), established Udaybhansinhji Regional Institute of Cooperative Management (URICM) in 1956.

III. Emperor Vatsraja Pratihar’s Descendants

1. Imperial Pratihars -

(1) Nagbhatt I was succeded by his nephews Kakkuka and Devraja. Devraja Pratihar was succeded by his son Vatsraja Pratihar. Emperor Vatsraja Pratihar (780–800). After Nagbhatt I, he was the next of the illustrious builders of Imperial Pratihar rule. He ruled over Western India which included Osia, Jalor and Deedwana. The Gallaka inscription (795 CE) discusses Vatsraja’s victories over Lata, Karnata rulers and his victory over Jayapida Karkota, which made him take his armies right upto Kashmir [45]. By virtue of his victory over the Gauda ruler Dakshinapatha and mleccha (Arab) kings, he carved a huge territory for himself and became an Emperor(sarva-bhauma-nrpatitva) [46]. He also defeated Tomar Vyaghr and Kuvalayamala Kaha was written by Udyotana Suri in 778 CE at Jalore/Jabalipura, under Vatsaraja’s patronage - indicating that at least until 778 CE, his capital was Bhinmal. As territories expanded and wars with Gauda and Karkotas took place, the capital was shifted from Bhinmal to Avanti/Ujjain [47].

(2) Nagabhata II (805–833) defeated the rulers of Andhra, Vidarbha, Kalinga, Matsyas, Vatsas and the Turks. He had defeated Saindhava ruler Ranaka I and conquered the western Saurashtra (now in Gujarat)[48]. He was followed by his son Ramabhadra (833–836) whose short reign oversaw much reversals and turmoil.


(3) Emperor Bhoja I Pratihar (836–885 CE) alias Mihirbhoj Parihar followed his father Rambhadra and reconsolidated the Parihar Empire. At its height, Bhoja’s empire extended to Narmada River in the South, Sutlej River in the northwest, and up to Bengal in the east. It extended over a large area from the foot of the[Himalayas up to the river Narmada [49]. In his tenure, the capital was once again shifted to Kannauj.

The Arab chronicler Sulaiman describes the army of the Mihirbhoj Parihar as it stood in 851 CE,

“” The ruler of Gurjara maintains numerous forces and no other Indian prince has so fine a cavalry. He is unfriendly to the Arabs, still he acknowledges that the king of the Arabs is the greatest of rulers. Among the princes of India there is no greater foe of the Islamic faith than he. He has got riches, and his camels and horses are numerous “”[50].

Teli ka Mandir & Sculptures surrounding it, Teli ka Mandir was constructed by Emperor Mihirbhoj, Source: here

(4) Emperor Mihirbhoj was followed by his son, Emperor Mahendrapala I (885–910), whose mother was a Bhatti Chandra - indicating that the Bhattis were firmly entrenched in Vallamandala (older name of Jaisalmer region).His Siyadoni Insctiption (907 CE), from Siyadoni near Jhansi, testifies to the use of coin denomination panciyakadramma [51]. He was followed by Bhoja II (910–913),Mahipala I (913–944), Mahendrapal II (944-948 CE) and by the time of Mahendrapal II, the Imperial power of Parihars had collapsed as Chauhans of Sambhar, Solankis of Annhilvada-Patan, Parmars of Malwa gained independence.

(5) Two Rakhatera incriptions (dtd 942 & 943 CE) of Raja Vinayakpala Parihar(954–955), from Rakhatera village in Chanderi tehsil in Ashoknagar district of Madhya Pradesh attest to usage of coined money.
Evidence of the use of drammas in the reign of Mahipala II (955-956 CE) comes from Bayana inscription (955 CE) of Citralekha Surasena, who was a subordinate of the former [52].

As a result of simultaneously fighting off Turkic attacks from the west, the attacks from the Rashtrakuts and the Pala advances in the east , the Pratiharas lost control of Rajasthan to their feudatories. By the end of the 10th century the Pratihar domains had dwindled to a small state centered on Kannauj. Raja Chandela Vidhyadhara killed Raja Rajapal Parihar(960–1018) and Jasapala, the last Pratihara ruler of Kannauj, died in 1036. Later Kannauj was conquered by Raja Gopal Rathore (Rashtrakut) , a feudatory of Emperor Chandradev Gaharwar [53] forcing most Parihars to migrate to Gwalior & Bundelkhand.
The 1911 Farrukhabad Gazetter recorded merely 1,575 Parihars in Kannauj [54].

The Kannauj Pratihar dynasty was replaced by several cadet-lineages in the vicinity - Gwalior-Narwar Parihar dynasty, Chanderi dynasty and Nagod-Unchahara dynasty

2. Gwalior-Narwar Pratihar Dynasty

Teli ka Mandir,Gwalior, originally built by Rajput ruler Mihirbhoj Parihar, , Source: here

As per Kharg Rai List, the Parihar dynasty of Gwalior was established by Parmal Deo in VS 1186 (1129 CE). The Parihara rule over Gwalior is also attested by the 1150 inscription of Ramdeo and 1194 inscription of Lohanga-Deva [55]. However, the inscription of Ajaypal Kachwaha dated 1192 ans 1194, also attest to the fact that these Parihar rulers either jointly ruled it with Kachwahas or they were vassals of the latter [56]. The Tajul-Ma’asir suggests the Ghurid general Qutb al-Din Aibak invaded Gwalior in 1196, and extracted tribute from Raja Sulakshanapala Parihar (whom Tajul-Ma’asir labels Solankhapala of Parihar family). The invaders took over the fort in the later years. The last ruler Raja Sarangdeo Parihar left Gwalior in 1232 CE for Mausahaniya village (Nowgong tehsil, Chhatrapur district). His brother Raghavdeo Parihar migrated to Ramgarh while another brother Ramdeo Parihar migrated to the region of modern Etawa .

The 7 rulers of Gwalior’s Parihar dynasty are as follows: Parmaldeo,Ramdeo, Hamirdeo, Kuverdeo, Ratandeo, Lohangdeo & Sarangdeo[57].
The Kuretha Inscription dtd 1221 CE introduces the Pratihar family and a king named Natula Pratihar born in it. Natula’s son Pratapsimha, who is called a nripa or king, had a son Vigraha Parihar who was married to Alhandevi, daughter of Rao Kelhana Chauhan of Nadol. Vigraha seems to have flourished in the period 1185-1205 CE[58]. Vigraha could be Lohangdev or his brother, Pratapsimha is the same as Ratandeo and Natula is same as Kuverdeo.

Currently, Gwalior has 25 villages of Parihar rajputs.

3. Parihars of Chambal

(A) Parihara

Gwalior’s last ruler, Raja Sarandev Pratihar gave his younger brother Ramdev Parihar the locality of Sindaus (Chakarnagar teh, Etawah) in 13th century [59].This tract came to be known as Parihara or Pariharghar and consisted of 16 villages , of which 12 villages belonged to Parihar Rajputs and 4 belonged to Kachwaha Rajputs. Saindaus was the capital of Parihara [60]. Ramdev had 3 sons, whose descendants inhabit these 14 villages today, which are: Gadhiya Piprauli, Kuwarpur, Vindwa, Lalupura, Bithouli, Ritaur, Bansri, Chourela, Gadhiya Kaleshwar, Aneti, Bhorpura, Kariyawali, Bidouri and Nimra (in 2 villages, they cohabit with Kachwahas).

Maj Gen Jitendra Kumar Singh Parihar, Ophthamologist, former ADG (Armed Forced Medical Services) is from Pidawali village(teh Baseri, Dholpur)Source: here

(B) Malhajani

Gwalior’s Raja Sarangdeo Parihar’s younger son Jalim Singh Parihar migrated from Gwalior to Sarsedh (district Hamirpur) in 13th century - some of his descendants migrated to Siddhpur (district Jalaun). One Mahipalsingh Parihar moved with his brothers to Etawah district and became the Raja of Malhajani (Jaswantnagar teh, Etawa) taking in a jagir of 8 villages from the Bhadauriya Chauhan Rulers [61][62].
These branches also moved west upto Dholpur part of Chambal too.

4. Parihars of Bundelkhand - Alipura , Nagod


Raja Sarangdeo**'s younger brother Raghavdeo migrated to Ramgarh(teh Ajaigarh, Panna). His descendant Rao Madandeo Parihar received Jigni Zamindari from the Bundela ruler of Panna. This became Chaubisi ke Parihar, who inhabit 12 villages in this tract. Apart from this, they are found in Manpur(Jasra teh, Allahabd), Bilti (Akbarpur teh, Kanpur), Malheta (Rath teh, Hamirpur), Jhagarpur (Unnao) [63]. They established the [Jigni State] ( in Hamirpur, Uttar Pradesh, which is why they also began to be called Jigni Parihars.
This branch is also found in Jhansi district.
In Sidhi district, some of their villages are: Baghwar, piprohar, padainiya, mauhariya, purani sidhi, dhuadol, mahrajpur.

(B) Nagod Pratihars

A section of Parihars led by Veerraj Parihar, a descendant of Kannauj’s Raja Rampal via his son Deoraj Parihar, established Unchahara State (Unchahara tehsil, Satna District), this eventually came to be known as Nagod when the capital was shifted to Nagod tehsil. It comprised much of Satna and Katni districts.. The Nagod Parihars are found predominantly across Satna district and Katni district today. They are also found in Rewa, Sidhi and Umaria.
Nagod Parihar villages in Sidhi district: Khara, Sagauni, Sajmani, Kodaid.

Raja Raghvendra Singh Parihar of Nagod in his Darbar circa 1860

(C ) Parihars of Orai & Unnao

They claim descent from Shivirshah, descendant of Raja Vijaypal Parihar, which could be Kannauj’s Emperor Vijayapala II (956–960) [64]

(D) Alipura-Chhatrapur Parihars

Jhujjar Parihar, second son of Raja Mahipala II (955–956) migrated to Bundelkhand - his descendant Achal Singh Parihar was given land grants by Panna’s Bundela rulers, where the former established Alipura State in Chhatrapur district.

5. Parihars of Malwa - Chanderi Dynasty

Two Inscriptions from Kannauj’s Pratihara ruler Vinayakapala from Rakhatera(teh Chanderi, Ashoknagar district) had been noticed by many scholars but it had remained unpublished. The Rakhatera rock inscriptions of CE 942 & 943 CE mentions irrigation work on the river Urvasi (Urra) provided by Vinayakapaladēva [65] .
Hence the Parihar presence in this Chanderi-Malwa goes back to at least 10th century. Chanderi was founded by Kirtipal Parihar in 11th century CE. (Ref here)

Bharat Kala Bhavan Inscription from Siyadoni, Jhansi district (dtd VS 1040 ie 987 CE) mentions Neelkhanth Parihar and his son Hariraja Parihar [66].

Jaitravarman Pratihar’s Chanderi Inscription mentions Lineage of Pratihara Kings Nilkantha, Hariraja, Bhim,Ranapala, Vatsraja, Swarnpal,Kirtipal Parihar, Abhaypal, Govindraj,Rajaraj, Veeraraj and Jaitravarman. It also mentions construction of Kirti Sagar, Kirti Durga and Kirti Mandir by Kirtipala Parihar. Kirti Durga is the other name of Chanderi Fort, whille Kirti Sagar and Kirti Mandir are identified with the lake and temple [67].

Chanderi Fort, Source : here

However, later Chanderi came under the Sultanates. In 16th century, an illustrious local warlord Medini Rai Parihar, rose to dominance in the service of Mandu’s Khilji Sultanate. Military Historian Dirk H A Kollf calls him as the de-facto ruler of Malwa [68]. The contemprary writer Nizamuddin recounts that in 1516, the Purabia Rajput warlords were considering the possibility of removing the restive Sultan Mahumd and placing Medini’s son Rai Raian on Mandu throne. At this occassion, Nizamuddin quotes Medini Parihar saying “At the present moment, the saltanat of Malwa is in reality in our possession. If, however, Mahmud Shah does not remain as a buffer, Sultan Muzaffar Gujrati will come galloping along and will seize the kingdom[69].

In 1520, Maharana Sanga of Mewar captured the city, and gave it to Medini Rai Parihar in exchange for his services against Sultan Mahmud II of Malwa. Later, Medini also served Sanga in the battle of Khanwa(1527). Later, Babur invaded Chanderi(1528), wherein a Jauhar followed by Saka was performed. After this, many Parihars migrated southward towards Jabalpur-Narsinghpur (?).

Tapasya Parihar, UPSC 2017 AIR 23 is from village Joba (teh Kareli, Narsinghpur)

IV. Awadh-Purvanchal

1. Kalhans Parihars

Taaluqdar of Deoli,Barauli and Kamair were Kalhans Pratihars.

They are descendants of a Kalyanpal or Kalhanpal Pratihar who founded Kiloi village and later migrated to Gonda district in Awadh region. They are called Kaalyaa branch by Muhnot Nainsi (Ref: Muhnot Nainsi Ki Khyat Part-1,pg. 221) Sahaj Singh established a powerful kingdom comprising whole of the southern parts of the Gonda with Khurasa. They ruled it until their territories passed to Digsir Bisens in 16th century [70] . They had 12,617 representatives in Gonda district in 1901 [71].


Estate of Raja Sher Bahadur Singh used to consist of 59 villages and 11 pattis in Zila Bahraich and Bara Banki .
(pg Rajas & Taluqdars of Oudh; Darogha Haji Abbas Ali; p. 28)

2. Narauni Parihars

They are named so, due to origins in Narwar. These Parihars from Narwar migrated to Kharid in district Balia and parts of Saran district. In the former, they acquired the two tappas of Bansdih and Sukhpura, their chief headquarters being Bansdih & Kharauni. In 1881, they were recorded to have 5,707 representatives and owned 40,000 acres [72].

V. Gurjara-Pratiharas - Bargujars, Madhads & Sikarwars

1. Bargujar Pratihars

Neelkanth Temple complex,village Rajorgarh or Paranagar(tehsil Rajgarh, Alwar), commissioned by Bargujar Rajputs; Source: here

The Only usage of the phrase “Gurjara Pratihara” was in Neelkanth Temple Rajorgarh inscription dtd 961 CE by a Maharajadhiraj Mathandev for himself. This inscription was found from Neelkanth Temple constructed by Mathandev in Rajorgarh village (Rajgarh Tehsil, Alwar), a feudatory of Kannauj’s Pratihar Vijaypala (956–960) [73]. Local temple records inform us that King Mathandeva gave the village of Vyaghrapataka (present-day Baghor(Tijara tehsil, Alwar)) — with its pasture-lands, trees, grass and produce of grain etc. — as a grant to this temple.The inscription also mentions Mathandev Pratihar’s father Savata , a master of the town.
This clan is identical with the Vadagujara-vamsa (Bargujar), mentioned in line 8 of Macheri inscription (VS 1439 or 1382 CE) [74] - the very first recorded instance of the term “Bargujar” for the subclan.
This was the only Pratihar dynasty that used the demonym “Gurjar” (like Gurjar Jains or Gurjar Gaur brahmins) to indicate their origin & presence in Gurjaradesa - Read about Gurjara Demonym. Eventually, it became Bargujar, underlining authority over non-Kshatriya groups of same demonym. Pratihar Vyaghraraja Bargujar was a Bargujar who (as per oral folklore) established Rajgarh city , Baghor/Vyaghrapattika village and a Baghola Talab [75].

Bargujar capital shifted from Rajor(tehsil Rajgarh, Alwar) to Macheri(tehsil Rajgarh, Alwar), yet Rajor or Rajyapura or Paranagar remained the seat of their kuldevi Ashawari Mata.. Taseeng , Rewana, Banthala, Khor, Dasod and Basai in *tehsil Behror , Machhauli(Kishangarh Bas tehsil), Bamanwas(Thanagaji tehsil) are some prominent Pratihar Bargujar villages in Alwar. In total, there are 16 villages of Bargujar still extant in Alwar as most Bargujar Pratihars eventually moved towards west UP and Bhiwani.
Dausa was also under Bargujars, from whom the Kachwaha Dulharai is said to have wrestled it in early 12th century.

  • In 1185 CE, Bargujars from Rajorgarh led by Rao Pratapsimha migrated to Bulandshahr (Baran) where he married the daughter of the Dor Parmar Ruler and received a jagir of 150 villages. In 17th century, Anuprai Bargujar had saved Mughal emperor Jehangir from a lion while on a royal hunt. In return, the pleased Emperor gave him some lands in Bulandshahr district - the modern Anupshahr City in Bulandshahr district was established by and named after him [76]. Even today, Bargujars have around a hundred villages in Anupshahr, Diboi, Khurja, Syana & Shikarpur vidhansabha of Bulandshahr.

  • Bargujars also had a chaurasi in Narauli of Sambhal district.

  • They had a chaubisi in parts of Gurgaon adjascent to Alwar.

  • Muslim Bargujars were found in Muzaffarnagar & Aligarh , and go by the names of - Lalkhani, Ahmedkhani, Bikramkhani, Kamalkhani. The Lalkhani Bargujars are the most numerous of these - the Lalkhani Muhammad Ahmad Khan of Chhatri was a donor to AMU & its Chancellor for 17 years. Azad Hind Fauji Captain Abbas Ali was also a Lalkhani Bargujar.

2. Madhad Pratihars

The Pehowa inscription [77], Sirsa inscription [78] , Delhi inscription [79] and various coins and coin-moulds of Mihirbhoj (836-890 CE) from Khokhrakot (Rohtak) confirms Pratihar rule over Haryana [80]. Sirsa was a divisional headquarter of Pratihars [81]. The Pratihar clansmen deputed to Haryana eventually became Madhad Pratihars, who are older than Bargujars in the tract covering Northern and Central Haryana.
Johiya Rajputs ruled the current JInd and Sirsa districts in 9th century,from where they were displaced by Madhadh Pratihars led by Raja Jandev. They also drove the Chandel rajputs and Varaha Parmar rajputs who occupied the tract into the Siwaliks and across the Ghagger respectively into Patiala, where they are extant even now. [82].
Raja Jindrav, the son of Raja Jandev established the Jind town in Haryana. The region of Jind thus came to have 360 village Jagir of Madhad. Karnal was founded by Madhadh Pratihars (Ref: here)

The fertile region inhabited by Madhads eventually became known as Nardak

Eventually Masood Ghaznavi’s invasion circa 1038 CE, forced most of them to move northwards towards Kaithal, where they established their capital at Kalayat (Kalayat tehsil in Kaithal district) [83] .

" कैथल चंदेलो जीतियो, रोपी दिंग-दिंग राड, I
नरदक धरा का राजवी, मानवे मोड मडाढ II "

Pratihar Kaldev Madhad’s son drove away Varha Parmars from Assandh and Safidon and forced them to move to Patiala and Ludhiana, where they are extant even today. Thus Safidon in Jind and Salwan village in Asandh tehsil in Karnal became their other minor headquarters. In the Nardak in comparatively late times by intermarried with the Chauhans. And though they expelled the Chandel Rajputs from Kohand and Gharaunda when they first came into those parts of Karnal, yet the Chandels reconquered them, and the final occupation by the Mandhars coming direct from Kalyat, now in Patiala, is possibly of comparatively recent date [83:1].

In 1528-29, Madhadh Parihars of Kalayat in Kaithal (haryana) organized under Raja Mohan Singh Madhadh revolted against Babur and defeated 3000 men strong Mughal force under General Ali Kuli Hamdani [84] . This revolt had support from other agrarian groups like Rors, Malis as well. In response, Babur sent a 4000 strong cavalry and elephants to raze their settlements and crush the rebellion [85].

The Muslim Madhadhs had a chaudhriat at Siwan in Kaithal.

Some prominent Madhad villages in Haryana are Rajound, Salwan, Ghauranda(Arainpura), Batta, Ardana, Alawal, Munak, Pawna, Kalayat, Rahara, Singhana (Sarpdaman) and Muana in Karnal and Kaithal, which have over 60 villages of the clan. Important villages of Muslim Mandhads of Nardak, are Dachor, Gharaunda , Jalbana, and Urlana Kalan . The Muslim Madhads are now found in South Punjab, such as Okara, Multan, Lodhran and Khanewal districts of Pakistani Punjab [86].
The natives of larger villages of area caused much anxiety to Britishers during the mutiny of 1857 ---- notably Siwan, Asandh, Jalmana, Gondar, Salwan, Bhalla etc, which were all Madhad villages in Nardak [87].

3. Sikarwar Pratihars

This branch of Pratihars get their name from Vijaypur Sikri(now Fatehpur Sikri), before it passed into hands of Turkish sultans.[88].
As Sikri fell under Turkic administration, Sikarwars broke up into two branches, which migrated in different regions.

  • Pahargarh Sikarwars - Chambal

In 1347, Sikarwars conquered Sarseni village (Pahargarh tehsil, Morena) from Yaduvanshi Rajputs. Rao Pratihar Daansingh Sikarwar became the first Rao of Pahargarh State. Rao Dalel Singh(1646-1722) led Sikarwars to assist Maharaja Chattrasal Bundela against Padshah Aurangzeb in which they were successful. In 1767, Maharaja Vikarmsingh Sikarwar revolted against the Scindia ruler of Gwalior which led to loss of possessions and Raja Ganpatsingh (1841-1870) led many Sikarwars in support of Rani of Jhani in 1857, where many Sikarwars perished.

  • Purvanchali Sikarwars

They are predominantly found in Ghazipur district (UP) and its adjoining Kaimur district (Bihar).

Gahmar(Zamania tehsil, Ghazipur) was the capital of Sikarwars of Zamania

Ghazipur Sikarwars - Sikarwars led by Raja Dhamdeo migrated to this tract after Mughal invasion of Agra region. Under the leadership of a local chieftain, Meghar Singh, many Sakarwars in Zamania tehsil in Ghazipur district took part in a rebellion against British rule. [89]. Meghar Singh eventually accepted the leadership of Babu Amar Singh of Jagdishpur and the Sakarwars and the Ujjaniya Parmars eventually became allies [90].
Ghamar (Zamania tehsil, Ghazipur) was headquarter of Sikarwars in this district and it is also the largest village in India.

Kamsar Pathans, are descendants of Kamdeo Sikarwar - a brother of Dhamdeo Sikarwar & hence are basically Muslim Sikarwar rajputs. While Dhamdeo & his followers settled in Ghamar (Zamania tehsil, Ghazipur), his brother Kamdeo and his followers settled at Reotipur (Zamania tehsil, Ghazipur).

Chainpur (Kaimur) - Sikarwars also ruled the Chainpur tehsil(Bhabua subdivision) of adjoining Kaimur district, which lies in Bihar. The most important rulers of the Chainpur Sakarwars was Raja Salivahana who built Chainpur fort and was prominent in the region prior to the ascendancy of Sher Shah Suri [91]. Sikarwar villages in Kaimur are also found in Kudra tehsil(Mohania subdivision, Kaimur) [92].


  1. Epigraphia Indica ,XVI ,pp. 183 ↩︎

  2. ibid ↩︎

  3. B.N. Puri,The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas, p. 20 ↩︎

  4. K.M. Munshi Diamond Volume, II, p. 11 ↩︎

  5. Epigraphia Indica, XVIII, pp. 87 ↩︎

  6. M Debiprasad, Ghatiyala Inscription of Pratihara Kakuka, JRAS, p. 513 ↩︎

  7. BN Puri, ibid ↩︎

  8. Epigraphia Indica, XVIII, p. 87-89 ↩︎

  9. K C Jain,History of Mandore,Indian History Congress Vol 22 (1959), p. 228-231 ↩︎

  10. B.N. Puri,The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas, p. 20 ↩︎

  11. K C Jain,History of Mandore,Indian History Congress Vol 22 (1959), p. 228 ↩︎

  12. B N Puri, ibid, p. 21-22 ↩︎

  13. ibid ↩︎

  14. ibid ↩︎

  15. K.C. Jain, ibid, p. 230 ↩︎

  16. V.S. Shrivastavya, Parmars of Abu-Chandravati, p. 30 ↩︎

  17. ibid ↩︎

  18. Visheshwarnath Reu, Marwar ka Itihas Vol 1, p. 60-61 ↩︎

  19. V S Shrivastavya, Parmars of Abu-Chandravati & their Descendants, p. 31 ↩︎

  20. Rajvi Amar Singh, Medieval History of Rajastha: Western Rajasthan,p. 584 ↩︎

  21. Register Dehat Riyasat Bikaner, p. 297-298 ↩︎

  22. Register Dehat Riyasat Bikaner, 217 ↩︎

  23. ibid ↩︎

  24. Munhot Nainsi ri Khyat Vol. 1, pp. 79-80 ↩︎

  25. Kumar Suresh Singh, India’s Communities Vol. 6, p. 3349 ↩︎

  26. Kunwarsi Sankhla ri Khyat ↩︎

  27. ↩︎

  28. Devi Singh Mandawa, Rajput Shakhao ka Itihaas, p. 178 ↩︎

  29. B S Nijjar, Jats And Allied Tribes of India, p. 310-314 ↩︎

  30. Ajay S Rawat, Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective,p. 33 ↩︎

  31. Shanta Rani Sharma, Origin & Rise of Imperial Pratihars of Rajasthan, p. 67 ↩︎

  32. Epigraphia Indica, XLI, 1975-76, pp. 49-57 ↩︎

  33. Epigraphia Indica, XVIII, pp. 99-114 ; S R Sharma, ibid, p. 69 ↩︎

  34. Dasratha Sharma, Lectures on Rajput History, pp. 2-5 ↩︎

  35. S R Sharma, ibid, p. 66 ↩︎

  36. Rao Ganpatsimha Chitalwana, Bhinmal ka Sanskritik Vaibhav, p. 43 ↩︎

  37. RSC, ibid, p. 45 ↩︎

  38. RSC, ibid p. 45 ↩︎

  39. ibid, p. 46 ↩︎

  40. ibid, p. 47 ↩︎

  41. ibid, p. 48 ↩︎

  42. ibid, p. 49-51 ↩︎

  43. Nainsi, Vigat,Vol 1, p. 14 ↩︎

  44. Munhot Nainsi ri Khyat Vol. 1, pp. 79-80 ↩︎

  45. Epigraphia Indica, XLI, pp. 49-57 ↩︎

  46. Shanta Rani Sharma, ibid, p. 79 ↩︎

  47. SRS, ibid, p. 77 ↩︎

  48. Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999);Ancient Indian History and Civilization; p. 343 ↩︎

  49. E-gazeteer-History of Etawah distric ↩︎

  50. Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002); History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D, p. 207 ↩︎

  51. SRS,ibid, p. 130 ↩︎

  52. SRS, ibid, p. 132-133 ↩︎

  53. R.C. Majumdar, The Struggle for Empire,Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 50-51 ↩︎

  54. E R Neave; Farrukhabad: District Gazetteers of The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh; p. 72 ↩︎

  55. Mysore Ramsharma (1970). “No. 23 - Two inscriptions of Ajayapaladeva”. In S. S. Gai (ed.). Epigraphia Indica . XXXVIII Part I. Archaeological Survey of India, p. 134 ↩︎

  56. ibid; p. 133 ↩︎

  57. Archaelogical Report, 1864-65; p. 378 ↩︎

  58. Ahmed Ali, Kachchapaghata Art & Architecture, p. 10 ↩︎

  59. Etawa Janpad ka Hazaar Saal, p. 88 ↩︎

  60. K Wagner; Thugee: Banditry and the British in Early 19th Century India; p. 82 ↩︎

  61. Etawa Janpad ka Hazaar Saal, p. 87 ↩︎

  62. Bigley, ibid, p. 107 ↩︎

  63. Devi Singh Mandawa, Kshatriya Shakhao ka Itihaas, p. 167 ↩︎

  64. ibid, p. 164 ↩︎

  65. Arvind Kumar Singh; Gwalior (2012, in Journal of History and Social Sciences III) ↩︎

  66. Arvind Kumar Singh, Later Pratihar Rulers and their Inscriptions, Itihas Darpan XV(2) -2010, p. 60 ↩︎

  67. ibid, p. 78 ↩︎

  68. Dirk H A Kollf, Naukar,Rajput & Sepoy; p. 90 ↩︎

  69. Nizamuddin, Tabaqat , III, p. 597-598 ↩︎

  70. HR Neville, Gonda: A Gazetteer of the United Provinces of Agra & Oudh; p. 68 ↩︎

  71. ibid; p. 140-141 ↩︎

  72. HR Neville; Balia: Gazetter of Oudh and Northewest Provinces; p. 72 ↩︎

  73. Epigraphia Indica, III, pp. 263 ↩︎

  74. Epigraphia Indica, III, No. 36; Rajor Inscription of Mathandev VS 1016 by F Kielhorn ↩︎

  75. Dr Raghavendra Singh Manohar; Rajasthan ke Prachin Nagar aur Kasbe; p. 28 ↩︎

  76. Bulandshahr: Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteer; 1980; p.25 ↩︎

  77. EI ; I ; p. 186 ↩︎

  78. Ibid; XXI; pp. 295 ↩︎

  79. ASIR, 1925-26; p. 183 ↩︎

  80. Silak Ram; Archaelogy of Rohtak and Hissar districts (Haryana); PhD Thesis; Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 1972, p. 26 ↩︎

  81. History of Sirsa Town, p. 24-25 ↩︎

  82. Gazetteer of Karnal District, 1883-84; p. 105-106 ↩︎

  83. ibid ↩︎ ↩︎

  84. Ahmad Yadgar, Tareekh-e-Shahi; Dirk H A Kollf; Naukar Rajput Sepoy; p.10 ↩︎

  85. ibid ↩︎

  86. ↩︎

  87. Punjab and the Indian Revolt of 1857, p. 72 ↩︎

  88. Rezavi, Syed Ali Nadeem (2013). Sikri before Akbar ↩︎

  89. Troy Downs (2007). “Rajput revolt in Southern Mirzapur, 1857–58”; Journal of South Asian Studies . 15 (2): 29–46 ↩︎

  90. Troy Downs (2002). “Rural Insurgency During the Indian Revolt of 1857-59: Meghar Singh and the Uprising of the Sakarwars”. South Asia Research . 22 (2): 123–143. ↩︎

  91. Devendrakumar Rajaram Patil (22 December 2017). The antiquarian remains in Bihar . Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute. p. 75. ↩︎

  92. ibid ↩︎


One more thing: To destroy the Gujjar idenitiy, we need to find the entomology of Gujjar. I can not think of any thing but Gurjara which it could be derived from. Do you have any suggestions on the entomolgy?

I am in the process of writing it gradually. Details that we know , would be added gradually. All Parihars belong to the same clan, hence their assertion of a common heritage in Shree Laxman.

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Is it possible that there could be brahmanas in that same clan? There are Dahima Rajputs and Dahima Brahamanas. Kaushik Rajputs and Kaushik brahmans, etc

Agreed that there are Dahiya Rajputs, & Dahiya Brahmins ; as well as Kaushik Rajputs & Kaushik Brahmins , or Gaur Rajputs or Gaur brahmins. But as of now, being from Marwar itself I havent found Parihar brahmins. In fact the most prominent Brahmins in Marwar (what was the Parihar Rajput domain once), are the Shrimalis and the Gurjar Gaur Brahmins.

I think its more geographical. Dahiya brahmins and dahiya rajputs get there name from Dadhimati temple. Most brahmins were intially known from their gotra names.

How many Paliwals are still in Marwar?

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I have evidence that will officially end Ram Shankar Tripathi’s career and the Gujjar idenity of the Pratihars, provided by none other than DR Bhandarkar-
An inscription of Shiyaji, the first Rathod clan member, is referred to as a Kannauiyija-Rathoda in an inscription found in a temple near Jodhpur state. There is no tribe called 'Kannauyija" and Kannauyija means Kannauj a TERRITORY. Similarly, Mathandeva refers to himself as a 'GURJARA PRATIHARA" (ie Pratihara from Gurjarabhoomi) like Siya is called a Kannauyija-Rathod (ie Rathod from Kannauyija). This clearly shows that clan names are always before tribe/caste (ie Rathod Rajput, Cechi Gujjar, etc).Mathandeva was simply a Pratihar Rajput who moved from Gurjara to Alwar.

Side note: I do think that there were Pratihar Brahmins and Pratihar Rajputs, the Mandore one MAY be brahmin, but I will not say much. If bheels and gonds could be accepted as Kshatriya, there is no reason for brahmins not to be accepted as it. I will refrain from saying much about it, however, as I do not want to anger anyone. Next post will be on the Proto Pratihars.

There is a padia brahman clan:



Proto Pratihars have been a matter of debate. They are cited as foreign or local, and my arguements for foreign origin conspiracy theorists:

  1. Khazar’s were a Turkic confederation of different tribes who invaded with the Gokturks, while the Hephtalites that invaded India were Iranic and came 50 years before Gokturks. The idenity of these 2 is based on a mere similarity in endings.
  2. Not a single Huna inscription has been found in Rajasthan, so no Huna army may have even entered Rajasthan. However, we know from epigraphic evidence that Malavas once inhabited this area and Prakashadharman, a Malava, liberated Rajputana following his victory of Mandsore. Yashodharman may have united the tribes of Rajputana to inflict a crushing defeat on the Hunas and evict them from India.
  3. The 2 words Pellapelli and Rohilladhi may be Non- Sanskritic, but they are not Turkish nor Iranian and remain untranslated, to this day. Pellapelli seems to be a duplicate of the word pellin, which means “one who habitually either gives pain to his enemies or pushes them back” . That he earned this name through defeating his enemies seems to corroborate this claim. Similarly, “Rohilladdhi” may be a corruption of “Rohia Laddhi jassa” which means “one who developed yogic power laddhi”. This seems to corroborated by other statements we hear about Harichandra (his brahminhood, vedic knowledge, etc) .

Thus, we can conclude that Pratihars are native to Rajasthan and are likely part of the coaliton who fought the Huns led by the intrepid Yashodharman himself.

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Bhils & Gonds haven’t been accepted as Rajputs either. Rajgonds of MP are still Gonds & so are Bhil Royals of Dangs.
The insistence to problematize Kshatriya origins by either declaring them of foreign origins or giving them a mixed caste-origins based on wild speculations is simply untenable.

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Are chandellas not Gonds or tribals?


Reversal of Hardships and Reconquest of Kannauj:

Mihira Bhoja was born to Ramabhadra, the previous Pratihara king. During this time, India was locked in a 200 year struggle for the key territories in the wealthy Gangetic plains. Ramabhadra appears to have suffered hardships and defeat at the hands of the Palas and the Rashtrakutas; the Rashtrakutas were raiding Malwa, and the Palas seem to have reconquered Kanyakubja ( the city being fought over for) as well as other territories that were captured during Ramabhadra’s predecessor, Nagabhata II. The Arabs remained a never ending threat in the west while the Rashtrakutas were ready to pounce on Kannauj at any moment.

When Mihira Bhoja entered the throne, he found himself in a dire situation as explained above. Mihira Bhoja solidified his rule over his inherited territories (Gujarat, Rajasthan, Bundelkhand, Malwa) and successfully recaptured Kannauj from the then Pala King, Devapala. Mihira Bhoja may have even raided or held sway over Bihar as evidenced by a lack of Pratihara or Pala inscriptions, indicating a struggle for hold on this region. Gunambhodidheva, a general in the Pratihara army, was rewarded for his brave actions in this expedition. Guhila, a feudatory of Mihira Bhoja may have also taken part in this war, or in another expedition as will be seen below.

War with the Arabs:

Mihira Bhoja also got into frequent conflict with the Arab governors in Sindh and Multan. Harsa of Chatsu, the father of Guhila (whom were vassals of the Pratiharas), is said to have led a successful expedition up north where he “presented loyally to Bhoja horses of a breed, the Srivamsa, who could cross the seas of Sand”. Historian Dashratha Sharma opines that the sandy track in this inscription could be a reference to a conflict with the Arabs in Sindh. We also know that Bhoja and the Arabs were always at war from Suleiman (Arab scholar), who describes Bhoja as the “greatest foe to the Arabs”, and Al Masudi , who tells about how the Arab governors at Sindh and Multan would threaten to burn a famous sun temple down upon hearing the arrival of the Pratihara army. Thus, it seems that the Pratiharas may have vassalized or at least successfully fought with their Arab neighbors to the west. References to early Chahamana rulers defeating the Mlecchchas (in the Prithviraja Vijaya) also seems to lend support to this view.

War with the Rashtrakutas:

The Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas were bitter rivals of each other. In most of their conflicts, the Rashtrakutas had always gotten the better of their Pratihara adversaries in the fight for Kannauj, with Dhruva Dhravarsha and Govinda III defeating Vatsraja and Nagabhata II (Bhojas ancestors) respectively. Upon entering the Pratihara throne, Bhoja was contemporary to Amoghavarsha Rashtrakuta , who was engaged in southern affairs. Pratihara and Rashtrakuta relations were calm until there was some war of succession between 2 Rashtrakuta rulers in Lata (Dhruva II and his younger brother). Bhoja did lead a cavalry raid into Gujarat which was succsesfully repelled by the former. Dhruva II may have been helped by the Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsa.

The next Rashtrakuta-Pratihara conflict happened towards the end of Mihira Bhojas reign , where Krishna II of the Gujarat branch is said to have obtained fame by “defeating the enemy at Ujjaiyni (Ujjain) in a battle by witnessed by Vallabha (Krishna II of Manyakheta, the Imperial Branch)” (Bagumra plates). Bhojas generals appear to have been caught off guard by this raid, and hence suffered defeat. However, quick retaliation followed and we hear no more of this Gujarat branch after 888 AD. It has been suggested by scholars that Krishna II chose to directly merge the Lata Branch, but this seems to be contradicted by the Barton Museum inscription which states that a ruler “who was known all around everyone by Varaha caught Krisnaraja by means of forced marches”. Thus, it seems that when the Pratihara army was fully mobilized, the 2 Krisnas beat a hasty retreat into their own domains. The army was led by the old Bhoja himself, who met the Rashtrakutas near the Narmada and scored a decisive victory over the 2 allies (the Lata Branch and the imperial Rashtrakuras.

We speculate that the Rashtrakuta branch in Lata (South Gujarat) was vanquished by Mihira Bhoja because:

  1. We hear no more of this Gujarat line after 888 AD

  2. The Cambay plates of Govinda IV mention that Krishna II freed Khekatamala (an area once held by the Lata Rashtrakutas) from some enemy. Krishna II probably liberated this area a few years after Bhojas death, where he made some grant.

Thus, we see from circumstantial and epigraphic evidence that the Lata Branch was ended by the Pratiharas, but later recaptured by Krishna II after Bhoja’s death.

Theorictical Second War with Bengal?
It has opined by Dr Baij Nath Puri (well renowned historian of India from Oxford University) that there Mihira Bhoja carried out 2 invasions of Bengal. To support this, he cites that both Guhila and Harsaraja (whom were loyal Pratihara feudatories in Chatsu, Rajasthan) who claim to have scored several victories of Northern kings. Mihira Bhoja had to reconquer Kannauj from Devapala and probably even conquered Bihar (as evidenced by a lack of Pala inscriptions). The next invasion may have been carried out by Guhila, who is said to have “vanquished the Gaudas”.

Extent of the Empire:

Mihira Bhoja’s military exploits created an empire that stretched from the Himalayan foothills to the Narmada river in Central India. From the borders of the Arabs of Sindh to Bihar (where 6 of his succsesor, Mahendrapala I’s inscriptions were found). His military victories in Sindh, Multan, Lata, and Bengal arguably make him one of the best military leaders in the Late Classical Hindu Age, where he ruled an empire that was near the size of the Guptas. Kannauj, the new Pratihara capital, became a center of learning and Hinduism as well.

Personal Life:
Not much is known about Mihira Bhoja’s personal life. His Gwalior Prashati inscription gives the lineage of all the Pratihara kings from Nagabhata to Ramabhadra (his father). Bhoja was a devotee of Vishnu and took on the title “Adi-Varaha” (Varaha is an avatar of Vishnu). All of his inscriptions begin with a salutation to Vishnu. Mihira Bhoja was succeeded by Mahendrapala I in the late 880s CE, who would go on to conquer North Bengal and Bihar.

EDIT: Here’s my original post:

Rajasthan through the Ages by Dashratha Sharma
The History of the Gurjara Pratiharas by Baij Nath Puri


What is the basis of making, Chandels, a Chandravanshi rajputs, Gonds ? What were the arguments made by PV Russel (the person who started this) and haven’t his arguments been quashed already.

If Chandels are Gonds, then why don’t they have Gond Culture ? Further, Chandels who are scattered across Northern India — Jammu, Himachal, Jaipur, UP, Bihar & MP, have a markedly different history from Dravidian speaking Gond people of Gondwana.

Are we sure that shooter Apuri Chandel of Jaipur, Rangoli Chandel from Himachal, General Zorawar Singh Kahluria from Himachal & Hockey hero KD Singh from Barabanki (UP) are Gonds.

On the other hand , why couldn’t Rajgonds (Royal families of Gonds) establish themselves outside Gondwana.
With such marked difference in demography, culture & history , how do we agree with Russel’s hypothesis which is solely based upon alliances between RajGonds of Garha-Katanga & Chandels of Kalinjar?

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Oh ok. Thanks for the clarification. It’s just a wide consnenus, and I have not really looked much into it. So Rajputs are basically largely descended of Vedic warrior clans (unless amuloma marriages ofc).

Btw- are you ok with posting some of my research on the Pratiharas? If not, I can delete my last post if it suits you.

I am a major Pratihara fanboy lol as they were the first empire from Rajasthan.

Much of it was started off as “speculations” by the British writers. But these speculations over the years have been published & republished as well-researched conclusions.

It is like interpreting Agnivansh myth in a certain way only to give a speculation & then find that the myth came only in the 17th century.

We can all agree that Kshatriyas, like Brahmins or Bhils or Gonds, have always been there - a sudden so-called appearance of a Clan to power or their ability to publish Inscriptions only reflects their rise to power.


Agreed. One literal campaign by toramana has been blown out of context it’s not even funny. Rajputs are sons of this soil and have nothing foreign about them.

Btw- what did you think about my post on mihir Bhoja pratihar? My next post will be about mahipala, the underrated the Pratihara emperor.

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Nicely written article.
Thanks for sharing.

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No problem. You can check out some of blogspots on my second account: @anonymous101_2

Next will be on Mahipala Parihar, a truly underrated emperor.


So Pratiharas were a Rajasthani empire right?

The capital was Bhinmal only during Nagbhatt I’s time and his domain was only Rajasthan, most of which he took from Chavda Rajputs. However, as the domain increased, Vatsaraj, grandnephew of Nagbhatt, who alsi ruled from Bhinmal - later shifted the capital to Ujjain & it was Nagbhatt II or Mihirbhoj who shifted it again - this time to Kannauj.

Ah. Proud 2 be from Rajasthan