Parmar/ Panwar Rajaputras: Origins, Growth, Expansions


The later Paramara kings claimed to be members of the Agnivansh, probably the only Rajput clan that claims so. However the earliest known source to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta Parimala, who was a court-poet of the Paramara king Sindhuraja (ca. 997-1010) [1].However, this legend finds no mention in earlier Paramara-era inscriptions or literary works. and follows the same trend as neighbouring dynasties that claimed divine or heroic origin [2][3].

There are other theorists who allege Parmars to be Mauryas, given that a major and the oldest recorded khaap/sub-branch of Parmars is Maurya (apabhramsa: Mori) who continued to rule Chittaur (named after Chitrangad Mori) as early as 8th century AD - Raja Man Maurya was a contemporary and uncle of Kalbhoj Guhilot (alias Bappa Rawal) who also established the Mansarovar tank near Chittorgarh. Apart from them, as per some the Rai dyasty of Alor were also Mauryas or Moris [4]. Except for a few Moris, most have been absorbed into the Parmar identity, perhaps influenced by the late 13th century Jain monk Merutunga’s Theravali which calls Gandharvsen I, grandfather of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, a grandson of Maurya ruler Samprati. However, Kumarapala Prabhandh puts Mauryans and Parmars as separate clan, which indicates that the Mauryan or Mori rajputs would have been a separate clan absorbed into Parmars. On Mauryans/ Moris , read here.

Parmars or Panwars have been postulated by Historians D.C. Sarkar & K.C. Jain to have origins in the Malavas, a proto-Rajput republic of 1st century CE that existed first in Punjab north to the confluence of the Ravi and Chenab rivers and ultimately moved to Central India, giving Malwa its current name [5][6]. In fact, both these above-mentioned regions in Punjab and Central India, are still called Malwa. The legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain was from a family of Gardabhilla branch of Malavas, but in Rajasthani accounts of early medieval India he ends up being addressed as Panwar [7][8]. With little doubt, Parmars or Panwars are the most widespread Rajput clan.

Coin of Parmara Naravarman ( 1094-1113 CE) of Malwa

Ujjain was the actual capital of Malwa Parmars for generations.


The NavaSahasanka Charita (11th century), Udaipur Prashasti inscription (11th century), Nagpur Prashasti inscription (1104 CE) describe a long list of early Parmar rulers in Malwa, starting from Upendra of 9th century CE (the founder of the dynasty) , Vairisimha I, Siyaka I, Vakpati I or Bappairaja of Harsola copper plates, Vairisimha II, who were probably vassals of Rashtrakuts or Pratihars. The Udaipur Prashasti says that Upendra was the founder of the reigning house who “gained a high order of kingship by his own valor”.

The Harsola copper plates dated 949 CE , found in Harsol in Sabarkantha district Gujarat , which mentions grants of two villages, are the oldest Parmar inscriptions. The grants were issued by Panwar ruler Siyaka II alias Harsha (948-972 CE), the first independent Parmar ruler and the founder of the Imperial Parmar dynasty. He overpowered the Hunas, whose principalities lay around Mandsaur. At the battle, he was also accompanied by Parmars of Vagad. He sacked the Rashtrakut capital Manyakheta in 972 CE, causing the decline of the latter and established Parmars as Imperial power. He left behind a vast extent of territory from the Mahi region in the west, to the Betwa in the east, to the edge of Rajasthan in the north and Narmada in the South & took the title of Maharajadhirajpati [9], finally retiring as an ascetic. He had two sons: Vakpati Munja and Sindhuraja.

The Vagad Parmars and the Abu Parmars, were both dynastic contemporaries of Siyaka II already. Besides, with extention of Imperial Parmar territories, starts a period of establishing Parmar lineages far and wide towards the North, the East and the West.

Emperor Vakpati Munja dug up several tanks, one of which was Munja talab in Mandu here

Siyaka was followed by his elder son Vakpati Munja, another great builder of the dynasty. Emperor Vakpati Munja alias Utpala (972-990 CE), extended his territories as far as the fortress of Chittor in the north, Lata in the west, Tripuri in the east, Deccan in the south and Gangetic plain in the far north. After which he adopted the title - Amoghavarsha, Sri-vallabha and Prithvi-vallabha. Ganguly opines that in his expedition Vakpati Munja also conquered the region around Abu and divided it among Parmar princes - his sons Aranyaraja, Chandana and his nephew Dusala [10]. The Udaipur prasasti reports that Vakpati had subdued the Karnatas - a general term for rulers of Deccan - and Merutunga states that Vakpati defeated Tailapa six times [11]. Tilaka-Manjari by Dhanapala eulogizes him as an archer. As per Bhojacharita, he was succeded by his younger brother and Siyaka’s second son Sindhuraja (990-1010 CE).

Sindhuraja (990-1000 CE) attempted to maintain the magnificience of the Parmara house and assumed the title of Avantisvara and Malavaraja. He subjugated Parmar Chandapa of Vagad who tried to renounce his subordination to the main branch. Apart from this, he also extended the realm upto Aparanta (northern Konkan) by defeating Silharas, Kosala by defeating Kalachuris, and defeated the Lata Chalukya ruler Gongiraja [12] However he faced a reversal from the Kacchapaghata ruler Mahipala (Sasbahu Temple (1092 CE)) [13]. Tilaka-Manjari, a work composed by the Paramara court poet Dhanapala eulogizes Sindhuraja as a great hero and “a lion for the line of rutting elephants of Indra” [14]. Sindhuraja had three sons - Bhoja, Udaditya, Mang.

Statue of Emperor Bhoja Parmar, Bhopal

(1) Sindhuraja was succeeded by his eldest son - Emperor Bhoja ( 1000- 1055 CE), a great patron of art and architecture.The Kalvana grant of his feudatory Yashovarman, claims for Bhoja victory over Karnata, Lata, Gurjara, Toggala and Bhima. He was the founder of two towns - Bhojpal (or Bhopal) and Bhojpur , 28 kms from Bhopal (not to confuse with Bhojpur of Bihar, which also has Parmar origins). His achievements deserve a separate article. He had one son Jayasimha who rose to power with the help of Chalukya Vikramaditya VI and was killed in a battle with a rival Chalukya prince Someshvara I.

I. Descendants of Imperial Parmars: PARMAR khaaps of MALWA origin

(2) The next ruler was Sindhuraja’s second son Udaditya (1060-1086 CE). During his tenure, or during that of Bhoja itself, the capital of Imperial Malwa was shifted from Ujjain to Dhar.
The khaap or subclan called Umat Panwars, who collectively established the Umatwara republic in Northern Malwa in 1400s , which later split into Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh states, trace lineage from Udaditya’s grandson - Umat [15].
Another group of Malwa Parmars migrated to neighbouring Bundelkhand & took up service under Rajas of Bundelas, a subclan of Gaharwars. These Parmars came to be Bundela Panwars (not to confuse with actual Bundela clan).The princely states of Chhatrapur and Beri States in 18th century belonged to Bundela Panwars.

(3) Sindhuraja’s third son Mang moved out.Sindhuraja’s grandsons through him were Maipha and Jalpa - the progenitors of Maiphawat Panwars and Jalpawat Panwars. Maiphawats is the oldest largest and most widespread branch of Malwa Parmars. The Bakhtgarh town, found in Dhar district is headquarter of Maiphawats. Initially, Pitgara in Badnawar Tehsil of Dhar was their initial headquarter founded by Rao Nagmalji Panwar in 1395, and later it was shifted to Bakhtgarh in Malwa by Rao Bakhtaji Panwar. However many Maiphawats & Jalpawats migrated towards Western UP, Haryana and Rajasthan’s Bikaner and Churu region. Bambori thikana in Mewar belonged to Maiphawat Parmars. One of Rao Maipha Panwars’ descendants -Kaluji Maiphawat Panwar and his brothers first came to Haryana in 1048 AD and was married into Delhi’s Tanwar Rajputs. All Panwars of Haryana are Maiphawats and trace their presence to Rao Kaluji Maiphawat’s migration. His son Ratey established Kalanaur (city in present Rohtak district) on an estate granted to him by a Chauhan ruler [16] . An illustrious descendant of Rao Kaluji Panwar was Rao Rohtas Panwar Maiphawat who established Rohtak (formerly Rohtasgarh) in 1140 AD [17].Many of Kaluji’s descendants at Kalanaur converted to Islam and Kalanaur remained the largest village for most Panwar Ranghads. before they migrated to Pakistan upon Partition. Both Hindu & Muslim Panwars of Haryana trace their lineage from the brothers of Raja Kaluji Panwar.

Rao Abdul Hamid Panwar, Victoria Cross recipient & World War I martyr, was a Maiphwat from Kalanaur

Udaditya was succeeded by his sons Lakshmadev and Narvarman (1094 - 1130 CE), followed by the latters’ son Yashovarman (1133-1142 CE) - both the rulers, however, saw decline and collapse of the Imperial power of Parmars.The penultimate ruler was Bhoja II, who was defeated by Ranthambore’s Hamir Chauhan. He had multiple sons, chief of which were Mahlkdev who succeded him and the other was Bhojaraj Parmar who, after the end of Parmar rule at Malwa in 1305, left with many off his followers to Shahbad region in Bihar by 1320 and renamed it Bhojpur.This section of Parmars became Ujjainiya Parmars, probably because Bhojraja lived at Ujjain and not the capital Dhar, [18].
By the late 16th century, the Bhojpur State, was spit up into Dumraon, Jagdishpur and Chaugain. The 1857 revolutionary Veer Kunwar Singh, was the Ujjainiya Parmar leader of Jagdishpur.

Kunwar Singh, 'The Rebel of Arrah & his clan-followers,'Image via Illustrated London News

Apart from Lakshadeva and Narvarman, Emperor Udayaditya had a third son Jagdev, who we know through the inscription at Jainad, Telangana [19].Some like D C Ganguly opine that Lakshadeva and Jagdev were the same individuals. As per this inscription from Telangana, Jagdev Parmar was an adventurer who took up service under Kalyani Chalukyas and defeated the Chola ruler Rajaraja II and also successfully invaded Hoysalas. The inscription also talks of two Dahiya rajputs - Arjun and Lolarka as favourites of his father. Jagdeva Panwar (1079 - 1151 CE) is a central caharcter to many folklores in Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat. A descendant of Jagdeva Parmar, Ishraj, established the Shakarpura Raj in Katihar. Jagdeva’s Parmars are scattred in the Northern Gangetic belt of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. A close descendant, Jagansimha Parmar established Jagner teshil, Agra[20] in 13th century. Descedant of this Jagansimha Parmar of Jagner, Rao Ashok Parmar of Jagner, was rewarded Bijolia thikana in Mewar by Rana Sanga for his services at Khanwa. Maharana Pratap’s senior wife Ajabde Panwar, belonged to this family.

However apart from these, the Dahaliya Parmars (from Dahal near Jabalpur) are an older sub-lineage who were rulers of Ladnun (Jangladesh) & Khandela (Shekhawati), before Mohil Chauhans and Nirban Nardev Chauhan respectively. They probably still have villages in Sikar.

A Parmar branch in Bihar takes its name from Bharsur vllage and is called Bharsurya Parmars. Another Parmar branch migrated to Gandhavari village in present Madhubani district ( of Bihar) in 14th century, and became Gandhavariya Rajputs of Tirhut and Mithila[21]. Dehakas are another branch.

The Khidmatiyas of Bulandshahr are another khaap of Parmars [22].
The Kanpur Ujjainiyas of Kanpur, traces ancestory to an older migration in early 12th century under Sur Shah Panwar who was invited by Emperor Jaichand Gaharwar of Benaras [23]. From Oudh they spread to Gorakhpur, dispossessing Bisens. They are scattered in Meerut, Agra, Farukhaba, Moradabad, Shahjahanpur, Kanpur, Banda, Jaunpur, Balia, Lucknow, Unnao, Hardoi and Faizabad districts [24].


Chandpur Garhi ruins; Chandpur was the seat of Panwars before they united the Garhwal region

The parent line of Panwars of Garhwal trace ancestory, as per oral folklores, to a rajaputra Kanakpala Parmar arrived at Chamoli in the region while on a pilgrimage in early 9th or [25] from Malwa or Abu. As per Prof Ajay S Rawat it was most likely Gujarat, due to similarities between Garhwali architecture and Maru-Gurjara architecture as well as similarities between names of places. However Due to its ancientness, apart from Malwa and Abu, it is a major branch in itself. Cunningham dates Chandpur Garhi to 1159 AD [26]. In 1358, Raja Ajay Pal Panwar, 37th in the generation from Kanakpal, united all the 52 Garhis and replaced the declining Katyuri dynasty ( survived by Rajwar Rajputs of Askot, Pithoragarh). The Kingdom formed by this uniting of 52 Garhis (chieftains) became the Kingdom of Garhwal, whose capital was shifted by Ajaypal from Chandpur Garhi to Devalgarh and finally Shrinagar. The State later survived as Tehri Garhwal State after the Gurkha invasion. Raja Mahipat Shah and Rani Karnavati aka Nak Kati Rani, were two famous figures of this dynasty [27].

Rifleman Jaswant Singh (MVC) was a Gorla Rawat (Panwar) from vill Baryun, teh Bironkhal, Pauri Garhwal

The Panwars of Garhwal have many sublineages - Kunwars, Rautela , Bartwal (from village Badet), Gorla rawats( Gudad), Moundora Rawat , Masolya Rawat, Kayada Rawat , Chamola Bisht (Chamoli dist), Gavina Rawat (Gavinagadh), some of these derived from Kanakpal while some arriving from Gujarat later [28] .

Up further north, Balsan, Baghal and Baghat were three small Parmar princely states in the present Himachal Pradesh (formerly Punjab Hills). The founder of Himachal Pradesh was Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar.


Achalgarh Fort was originally built by Abu-Chandravati Parmars in 11th century, later repaired by Maharana Kumbha Sisodia Guhilot here

The Arbuda or Abu Parmars rose around 918-919 AD [29], and its founder was Utpalraja, a brother of Bappairaja Parmar of Malwa. Their capital was at the foot of Mt. Abu, hence they are often dubbed Abu-Chandravati Parmars. Both the Bhinmal-Kiradu Parmars and the Jalore Parmars were offshoots of Abu Parmars[30]. Unlike the Vagad Parmars from the same region who were feudatories of Malwa Parmars, these three Parmar lineages were vassals of Imperial Caulukyas of Gujarat [31].

Of the rulers of Abu-Parmars, Utpalraja was succeded by Aryanaraja, Krishnaraja and Dharnivarha. Of this, Dharnivaraha Parmar (976-1001 AD) was a famous ruler who fought to renounce his subordination to the Imperial Caulukyas during the reign of Mulraj I Solanki. There is a famous folklore of Nav kot (9 fortresses) related to Dharnivaraha, who was followed by his son Mahipala,& grandson Dhundhuk. Dhundhuk had two sons - Puranpal and Krishnaraja II. The Bhinmal-Kiradu Parmars had their origins from this Krishnaraja II [32].
The Jalore Parmars were defeated and replaced by Nadol Chauhans in 1160 CE, creating the line of Jalore Chauhans. The Jalore Parmars are survived by three branches: Bhayal Parmars (Siwana & Jalore), Dhandhu Parmars (Marwar esp Jalore) & Kaba Parmars (Jalore & Saurashtra).
Bhayal Parmar jagirs in teh Siwana, Barmer are: Dheeran, Devandi, Goliya Bhaylan, Jeenpur, Mangi, Mawri, Muthli, Padardi Kalan, Peeplo, Telwara, Dantala.

Kaba Parmar jagira:

Vishnu temple mandap, Kiradu temple complex, built by Bhinmal-Kiradu Parmars here

Bahad Rao Parmar of Bhinmal-Kiradu branch established Barmer in 13th century [33]. His son Chahar Rao established Chohtan. As per oral history, he had 3 children: Vaghji aka Sankhla, Sodha & Kalyan Kanwar (Sachiya Mata as per some). Vaghji aka Sankhla succeeded his father and became progenitor of Sankhla Panwars. Being the younger brother, Sodhaji, however ventured into Sindh and captured Ratakot(Khipru) . The Sodha Panwars would later defeat Soomros and establish power at Amarkot. Muli state in Saurashtra was also dominated by Sodha Panwars.
Sankhla Panwars ruled at Barmer and Pugal (near Bikaner) before they were taken over by Rathores and Bhatis respectively. Rana Kumbha’s mother was a Sankhla Panwar Rajputni from Roon, Nagaur, while Rajasthan’s Panch-Pir Harbuji Sankhla was also maternal grandfather of Rao Bikaji & Bidaji - their mother was Naurangdevi Sankhla, after whom the village Naurangdesar of Bikaner is named.
Raisisar village in Bikaner was named after Raisi Sankhla, a brother of Rana Seehaddeo Sankhla of Roon (village , Nagaur) who defended Roon from Allaudin Khilji in late 13th century. Raisi moved from Roon and defeated the Dahiya Rajputs of Jangladesh expelling them to present day Ambala region of Punjab, where they are extant.

Similarly, Napasar town (Bikaner) was named after Napaji Sankhla who helped Rao Bika win Janglu and found the state of Bikaner.

Sankhlas are a branch of Parmar(Panwar) Rajputs who once held large tracts in the desert before eventually submitting to the Rathore juggernaut.

Panch-Pir Harbuji Sankhla’s chief temple is at vill. Baingti, teh Phalodi, Jodhpur

Rani Rupade, wife of Lord Mallinathji Rathore, was a Vala Parmar, who are still found in village Doodhwa, Barmer.

In 1300s, the Abu Parmars (the Chief parent of all the above were defeated and replaced by Deora Chauhans, a branch of Jalore Chauhans in Abu-Chandravati. Apart from the above khaaps derived from cadet-lines,the Abu-Parmars are survived in the region of Godwad and Palanpur by Rahevars, Barads, Kalmas and Suvars [34] - all found in Banaskantha and neighbouring districts of Gujarat. The Rahevars are widespread in districts of Banaskantha and Sabarkhantha districts, with their head family at Ranasan having lineage from the last rulers of Abu-Chandravati.

IV. Descendants of VAGOD Parmars of Arthuna

The Vagod Parmars ruled the region of Vagod with their capital at Arthuna in 11th century before the region was conquered by Ahada Guhilots [35]. The Barads of Panchmahal, Banaskantha & Sabarkantha trace ancestory to the Vagadiya Parmars of Arthuna who ruled Vagad in 11th century before it was conquered by Ahada Guhilots. Being one of the oldest Parmar branches in Gujarat, Barads are also widespread, with the head families at Danta, Banaskantha.

Similarly, many Parmars of Surendranagar, who are also likely migrants from Vagad, first established themselves at Than and Chotila, before they were permitted to encamp on banks of Bhogavo river by Vishal Vaghela. the ruler of Wadhwan in 1159 AD[36].

V. DOD Parmars

Gagron or Dodgarh pic: internet

The Dod-Parmars are an old Parmar sublineage that migrated to Gujarat & take their name from some Dod village. Their chief Chandan Dod had established Chandanavati (ancient Vadodara) [37]. Gagron in Jhalawar, previously called Dodgarh was also established by Bijaldev Dod [38] in 12th century.
The Manpur Copper plates dug up in Agauta pargana ,eight miles from Bulandshahr attests to the rule of Dor Parmars in the belt. Hardat Dor had built the fort of Balai Kot in Baran tehsil, Bulandshahr around 1018 AD. They were feudatories of Imperial Chauhans. Another ruler, Chandrasen Dor gallantly defended Balai Kot from the invasion of Shahbuddin Ghori in 1193 AD and slayed the general Khwaja Lal Ali, whose dargah is still seen east of Balai Kot. Chandrasen Dod defended the fort gallantly until he was betrayed by his Brahmin minister Hira who opened the forts gate [39]. The Sardargarh samants of Mewar and the rulers of Piploda princely state in Malwa belonged to Dod/ Dodiya Parmars (where Dodiya is a demonym). Other thikanas earned by members of this subclan were: Mundla Kalan (MP), Sunkhera near Gwalior and Bagol near Pali.

VI. Parmars of Punjab

In Bahawalpur, Jaipals, Kirarus and Dhandus came from Marwar [40].

The oldest Panwar branch in the desert, is Varha Panwars (descendants of Dharnivarah of Lodruva) who were both related to Bhatis and also resisted Devraj Bhati, the founder of Derawar Fort (teh. Ahmadpur East, Derawar) as early as 9th century CE [41]. They ruled Lodruva and Bahawalpur but the consolidation of Bhattis in Jaisalmer-Dhatt region, forced the Varhas further into the northern parts of Punjab.

Execution of Bhai Mani Singh Panwar, a Varhas from Multan

These Punwar Rajputs are found in considerable numbers along the course of Sialkot and have spread up the Beas into Jalandhar, Gurdaspur & Sialkot [42]. In Sialkot, they trace origin from one Vikramjit Punwar and are divided into branches: Bhutial from Bhota, Mandial from Mandila, Saroli from Sirali and Pinjauria from Pinjaur [43]. Another section of Varha Panwars were displaced by Madhad Pratihars from Salwan (teh Assandh, Karnal) into Patiala. The "Varhas Panwars*, also called Varya Rajputs are found in Patiala, Hoshiarpur & Sangrur districts of Punjab. The first wife of former Madhya Pradesh CM Digvijay Singh , Asha Rani, was a Varya Rajput from Ambota in Una district of Himachal was a zamindari of Varyas.(For further read: Chaudhuries of Ambota)

Sikh leader Bhai Mani Singh Panwar belonged to the Panwar dynasty of Alipur in Alipur tehsil in Muzaffargarh (near Multan) [44] , until 1701 when it came under the Muazzafargarh nawab. He was married to the daughter of Raav Lakhi Rai Jadaun of Khairpur, Bahawalpur.His son was Shaheed Bhai Bachhitar Singh Panwar.(refer here). [45]. They traced their origin from Raja Udaditya, through the last Parmar ruler Mahikdev Parmar, whose descendants took refuge under Sirmor’s Bhatti Rajputs in 14th century [46]. This made them brothers to Parmars of Himachal i.e. Balsan, Baghal & Baghat.

Bachittar Singh also took part in actions at Nirmohgarh and Basali and in the last battle of Anandpur. On the fateful night of 5-6 December 1705, when Anandpur was evacuated, he was one of those who safely crossed the torrential Sarsa rivulet. At the head of a flanking guard watching pursuers from the direction of Ropar, he had an encounter with a body of irregulars near Malikpur Ranghran in which he was seriously wounded. He was carried , near death, to Nihang Khan’s house at Kotla Nihang Khan by Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Bhai Madan Singh.

In Rohtak and Hissar they had origins from Kalluji Maiphawat & his brothers’ migration [47], and were often at loggerheads with Jatu Tanwar rajputs of Hissar. The Sikh Panwar Rajputs of Nadalon, Panjoura, Ajnoha ruled the Heeon Fort (teh Banga, dist Bhagat Singh Nagar) before it was conquered by Ghorewaha Rajputs of Rahon [48]. Apart from these, Haryana’s Mahendragarh district has 6-7 villages of Sankhla Parmars.

Tiwanas of Thal: They are a branch of Panwar Rajputs found in Thal region of Punjab [^49]. Thal is a desert between Jhelum & Sindh rivers, covering the districts of Bhakkar,Khushab,Miyyanwali, Lyyah & Jhang . The Panwar Rajputs of Tiwana branch mainly reside in Khushab where important Tiwana villages include Thatta Tiwana, Mitha Tiwana, Noorpur Tiwana, Girot, Hadali, Hamoka, Kalurkot, Kundian, Jhabrian, Waracha, Sakesar, Megha, and Thai Dandan.

As per their oral folklore Rai Shanker Panwar, a Panwar Rajput, from Daranagar in Kaushambi near Allahabad (Prayagraj) moved to Samana in Patiala and his descendant Melo Panwar moved to Pakpattan (Ajodhan) in 12th century where he embraced Islam at hands of Baba Farid.

Malik Khizr Hayat Tiwana of Shahpur Tiwana

The Punjab Unionist Party leader Malik Khizr Hayat Tiwana belonged to Shahpur Tiwana branch [49]


  1. Arvind K. Singh (2012). “Interpreting the History of the Paramāras”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society . 22 p. 14 ↩︎

  2. Krishna Narain Seth ;The Growth of the Paramara Power in Malwa (1978); p.10-13 ↩︎

  3. Arvind K. Singh (2012). “Interpreting the History of the Paramāras”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society . 22 (1): 13–28 ↩︎

  4. G.S.L. Devra; Arab Invasions And Decline of Western Maurya Confederacy, IHC Proceedings, 76th Session,2013, p. 195-197 ↩︎

  5. D.C. Sircar; Ancient Malavas and the Vikramaditya Traditions,p.12 ↩︎

  6. KC Jain, Malwa Through the Ages, p. 328 ↩︎

  7. H.D. Velankar, Vikram Volume, p 637; Dr. N S Bhati, Jaisalmer ri Khyat, p. 29 ↩︎

  8. D.C. Ganguly, History of Paramara Dynasty, p. 61-64,87-88 ↩︎

  9. “Interpreting the History of the Paramāras”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society . *22 ↩︎

  10. ibid, p. 18 ↩︎

  11. ibid, p. 18 ↩︎

  12. ibid p. 18 ↩︎

  13. ibid p. 19 ↩︎

  14. G. P. Yadava (1982), Dhanapāla and His Times: A Socio-cultural Study Based Upon His Works ↩︎

  15. Rajgar: Madhya Pradesh District Gazetter, p. 30 ↩︎

  16. The Tribune (April 22, 2000) The khaas baat about Farmana Khaas ↩︎

  17. Rohtak - Government of Haryana website; Dale Hoiberg; Student’s Britannica India, p. 3 ↩︎

  18. Journal of the Bihar Research Society, Vol. 47-49, p. 350 ↩︎

  19. Harihar Vitthal Trivedi (1991); Inscriptions of the Paramars (Part 2); p. 93-97 ↩︎

  20. H R Nevill, Agra: District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh,Vol 7 (1905), p. 295 ↩︎

  21. P. Pathak ; Origin of Gandhavariya Rajputs of Mithila, The Journal of Bihar Puravid
    Parishad 1983, Vol. VII & VIII. ↩︎

  22. The Tribes and Castes of North-Western Provinces and Oudh; p. 122 ↩︎

  23. A H Bingley, A Handbook of Rajputs, p. 111 ↩︎

  24. ibid, p. 112 ↩︎

  25. Ajay S Rawat; Garhwal Himalayas: A study in Historical Perspective, p. 27-29 ↩︎

  26. ibid. p. 30 ↩︎

  27. ibid, p. 41,42, 43 ,44, 282, ↩︎

  28. ibid, p. 29 ↩︎

  29. V S Shrivastavya (1953); Parmars of Abu-Chandravati and their Descendants; p. 6 ↩︎

  30. Arvind K. Singh (2012). “Interpreting the History of the Paramāras”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society . 22 p. 13 ↩︎

  31. ibid, p. 13 ↩︎

  32. P. Pathak ; Origin of Gandhavariya Rajputs of Mithila, p. 410 ↩︎

  33. Barmer, Government of Rajasthan website ↩︎

  34. Gazetteers of the Bombay Presidency, Cutch, Palanpur and Mahi Kantha, p. 329-330 ↩︎

  35. Kapur, Nandini Sinha (2002). State Formation in Rajasthan: Mewar during the Seventh-Fifteenth Centuries . New Delhi: Manohar. p. 60. ↩︎

  36. Gujarat State Gazetteers: Surendranagar; p. 111 ↩︎

  37. Imperial Gazetteer of India; Vol 3; p. 25 ↩︎

  38. ↩︎

  39. Bulandshahr: District Gazetteers of The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh; p.142-144 ↩︎

  40. H A Rose,The Glossary of Tribes & Castes ofPunjab & NW Frontier Provinces, pp. 239-240 ↩︎

  41. Nainsi Khyat II, p. 19-28 ↩︎

  42. Rose, ibid, p. 239 ↩︎

  43. ibid, pp. 240 ↩︎

  44. GianiGarjaSingh; ShahidBilasBhaiManiSingh; p. 63 ↩︎

  45. GianiGarjaSingh; ShahidBilasBhaiManiSingh; p. 17-18 ↩︎

  46. ibid ↩︎

  47. Rose, ibid, p. 239-240 ↩︎

    [^49] H A Rose; Glossary of The Tribes & Castes of Punjab & NW Frontier Provinces, p 471. ↩︎

  49. Sir Roper Lethbridge, The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled Or Decorated of the Indian Empire, Aakar Books, 1893 ↩︎


I think that all Agnikula clans are actually descended of Malavas. This is from a historum date

Agnivamshi was basically a legend in the late 16th century to foster a united resistance against the Mughals. The 4 clans mentioned in these are the Chauhans, Paramaras, Pratihars, and Solankis. These clans have historically clashed with the Delhi Sultanate and gave them a very tough fight. The Chauhans are most probably descended of the Malavas as most of the Malava artifacts have been discovered in the Nagaur region. They both also claimed descent from the same mythical god and had a desire for freedom. The Malavas also fractured into clans, the Aulikaras being one of them (probably the ancestors of the Chauhans) and the others becoming Solankis and Pratiharas. Solankis also seem to be native to Gujarat as Xuanzang describes several Anandpura and Kathiawar kingdoms as Malava, meaning that it is possible that the Malavas fractured into different clans and have their descendants in these clans. The Paramaras seem to be one of difficulty because they are the first to adopt the “Agnikula” legend, but they also seem to most probably be another branch of the Malavas. If we look at western India in the Saka era, we know that they were also fighting wars with the Malavas to the North and East of their dominions. Fast-forward 500 years, the Pratiharas emerged in Mandore, the Chauhans in Ajmer/central Rajputana, the Paramaras in Malwa and the Solankis in Gujarat. As I have shown, these areas seem to have been inhabited by the Malavas through the evidence of Xuanzangs account, as well as the Nurismatic evidences to support my theory. Therefore, we may conclude that the Agnikula myth is not created to hide ones origin, but it’s to remember a glorious past that these clans one had. It was to remember the joint resistance that these Malavas once gave to the Sakas and Kushans, and for these clans to reunite and face the Mughals in the same way they did to the Scythians and Kushans (and that too successfully). History of the Chahamanas by R.B. Singh gives a very detailed analysis of this phenomenon.

Agnivansh categorisation of putting these 4 clans together is itself a 17th century act.

Historian R. B. Singh in “History of Chauhans” had aptly explained that the origins of the first Chauhan power was in Jangladesh , Bikaner region — completely separate from the Malavas. This rather puts Chauhans, like Johiyas, descendants of Youdheyas. Or they could also be Vatsa. Similarly, the Chaulukyas or Solankis first rose to power in Gujarat and have been inseparable from Gujarat, even thought their branches spreadout into Rajasthan, Bundelkhand, Eastern Uttar Pradesh & then into Bihar. Parihars are though inseparable from Malwa, like Parmars.

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What about Arjunayanas? RB Singh claims them to be descended of the Malavas. We know that several tribes got absorbed into the larger “Malava” confederation like Kurukshedas for example.

Arjunayanas are probably Tomars. Why do we speculate that:- 1) Tomars claim descent from Arjun through Janmjeya 2) The oldest Tomar Rajput settlements were all in the surrounding regions of Delhi, the same belt where once Arjunayanas were active.

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So if I am correct:
Rathods- Rashtrakuta family from the Upper Deccan/Gujarat
Paliwals- Branch of Tomars Or Solankis?
Solankis- Sullikas?